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Themed collection International Year of the Periodic Table : From Pb and Sn Perovskites to the Next Generation

60 items
Focus

When defects become ‘dynamic’: halide perovskites: a new window on materials?

If defects in materials cost more (energy) than decomposing them, defect densities will be low and thermodynamically controlled, with the right kinetics, as for halide perovskites.

Graphical abstract: When defects become ‘dynamic’: halide perovskites: a new window on materials?
From the themed collection: Focus article collection
Review Article

Advances in lead-free double perovskite nanocrystals, engineering band-gaps and enhancing stability through composition tunability

In this topical review, we have focused on the recent advances made in the studies of lead-free perovskites in the bulk form and as nanocrystals. We highlight how nanocrystals can serve as model systems to explore the schemes of cationic exchange, doping and alloying for engineering the electronic structure of double perovskites.

Graphical abstract: Advances in lead-free double perovskite nanocrystals, engineering band-gaps and enhancing stability through composition tunability
From the themed collection: Recent Review Articles
Open Access Review Article

Will organic–inorganic hybrid halide lead perovskites be eliminated from optoelectronic applications?

In the development of perovskite solar cells, a new version of Don Quixote is needed if scientists are to keep on seeking the most celebrated works of literature, according to the evaluation criterion of ‘THE FIRST’ and ‘THE BEST’.

Graphical abstract: Will organic–inorganic hybrid halide lead perovskites be eliminated from optoelectronic applications?
Review Article

Recent progress on highly sensitive perovskite photodetectors

The recent progress and developments on perovskite photodetectors are summarized from the perspective of device physics and materials science.

Graphical abstract: Recent progress on highly sensitive perovskite photodetectors
Review Article

Luminescent perovskite quantum dots: synthesis, microstructures, optical properties and applications

The synthesis, microstructures, optical properties and promising applications of luminescent perovskite quantum dots in optoelectronic fields are systematically reviewed.

Graphical abstract: Luminescent perovskite quantum dots: synthesis, microstructures, optical properties and applications
Open Access Review Article

Mesocrystals for photocatalysis: a comprehensive review on synthesis engineering and functional modifications

In this review, we mainly summarize the important progresses made in the development of photocatalysis-oriented mesocrystals, including synthesis engineering, functional modifications (hybridization and doping), and typical structure-related photocatalytic mechanisms. Some urgent issues and perspectives have also been discussed.

Graphical abstract: Mesocrystals for photocatalysis: a comprehensive review on synthesis engineering and functional modifications
From the themed collection: Recent Review Articles
Review Article

Recent advances in one-dimensional halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications

This article reviews the achievements in synthesis techniques and nanoscale optoelectronic applications based on one-dimensional metal–halide perovskite nanocrystals.

Graphical abstract: Recent advances in one-dimensional halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications
From the themed collection: Recent Review Articles
Review Article

A review on morphology engineering for highly efficient and stable hybrid perovskite solar cells

Morphology engineering has been recognized as an effective way to attain highly efficient and stable hybrid perovskite solar cells.

Graphical abstract: A review on morphology engineering for highly efficient and stable hybrid perovskite solar cells
From the themed collection: Recent Review Articles
Open Access Communication

Co-axial electrospray: a versatile tool to fabricate hybrid electron transporting materials for high efficiency and stable perovskite photovoltaics

A hybrid ETM is prepared using co-axial electrospray for the first time and used as an electron transporting material for perovskite solar cells with a high efficiency of 20.27%.

Graphical abstract: Co-axial electrospray: a versatile tool to fabricate hybrid electron transporting materials for high efficiency and stable perovskite photovoltaics
Communication

Efficient methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite solar cells with chloroformamidinium chloride (Cl-FACl) as an additive

Highly efficient and stable mixed halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx) solar cells are fabricated with the incorporation of chloroformamidinium chloride (Cl-FACl).

Graphical abstract: Efficient methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite solar cells with chloroformamidinium chloride (Cl-FACl) as an additive
Communication

The top-down synthesis of single-layered Cs4CuSb2Cl12 halide perovskite nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical application

Herein, lead-free single-layered Cs4CuSb2Cl12 and Cs3M2X9 (X = Cl, Br, I; M = Sb, Bi) perovskite NCs have been prepared for the first time via a top-down liquid-phase ultrasonic exfoliation technique.

Graphical abstract: The top-down synthesis of single-layered Cs4CuSb2Cl12 halide perovskite nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical application
Open Access Communication

Synthesis of stable and phase-adjustable CsPbBr3@Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals via novel anion–cation reactions

In this study, a novel anion–cation method to synthesize highly emissive and stable diphase CsPbBr3@Cs4PbBr6 composite NCs has been developed.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis of stable and phase-adjustable CsPbBr3@Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals via novel anion–cation reactions
Communication

Highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanorods synthesized by a ligand-regulated reaction at the water–oil interface

We have synthesized highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanorods through an oriented-attachment mechanism assisted by the ligand-regulation at the water–oil interface.

Graphical abstract: Highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanorods synthesized by a ligand-regulated reaction at the water–oil interface
Communication

Critical role of metal ions in surface engineering toward brightly luminescent and stable cesium lead bromide perovskite quantum dots

A facile metal ions-assistant ligand surface engineering strategy to synchronously boost photoluminescence quantum yield and stability of CsPbBr3 PQDs.

Graphical abstract: Critical role of metal ions in surface engineering toward brightly luminescent and stable cesium lead bromide perovskite quantum dots
From the themed collection: 2019 Nanoscale HOT Article Collection
Open Access Communication

Polystyrene enhanced crystallization of perovskites towards high performance solar cells

Perovskite solar cells have attracted significant attention due to their high efficiency and low cost.

Graphical abstract: Polystyrene enhanced crystallization of perovskites towards high performance solar cells
Open Access Communication

MAPbI3 microneedle-arrays for perovskite photovoltaic application

Highly crystalline perovskite micro-needles are grown by a hydrothermal method and used in perovskite solar cells to yield 17.98% efficiency with no hysteresis.

Graphical abstract: MAPbI3 microneedle-arrays for perovskite photovoltaic application
Communication

Unexpected surface interactions between fluorocarbons and hybrid organic inorganic perovskites evidenced by PM-IRRAS and their application towards tuning the surface potential

Sticky perovskites! PM-IRRAS evidences that even simple fluorocarbons stick flat to methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites and modify their properties.

Graphical abstract: Unexpected surface interactions between fluorocarbons and hybrid organic inorganic perovskites evidenced by PM-IRRAS and their application towards tuning the surface potential
Communication

Enhanced moisture stability of metal halide perovskite solar cells based on sulfur–oleylamine surface modification

In this paper, oleylammonium polysulfides molecules were self-assembled on an etched perovskite film, leading to an enhancement in moisture stability of the devices.

Graphical abstract: Enhanced moisture stability of metal halide perovskite solar cells based on sulfur–oleylamine surface modification
Communication

Preparation of perovskite-embedded monodisperse copolymer particles and their application for high purity down-conversion LEDs

Fabrication of angle-independent 3D photonic crystals with organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoparticle-embedded copolymer particles for the extraction of a narrow emissive spectrum without angle-dependency.

Graphical abstract: Preparation of perovskite-embedded monodisperse copolymer particles and their application for high purity down-conversion LEDs
Communication

Mechanism suppressing charge recombination at iodine defects in CH3NH3PbI3 by polaron formation

Polaron formation prevents the hole trapping at the negatively charged iodine interstitial in CH3NH3PbI3.

Graphical abstract: Mechanism suppressing charge recombination at iodine defects in CH3NH3PbI3 by polaron formation
Communication

A class of Pb-free double perovskite halide semiconductors with intrinsic ferromagnetism, large spin splitting and high Curie temperature

We introduce perovskite halides into spintronics, and these materials are ferromagnetic semiconductors with large spin splitting and high Curie temperatures.

Graphical abstract: A class of Pb-free double perovskite halide semiconductors with intrinsic ferromagnetism, large spin splitting and high Curie temperature
Communication

Integration of a functionalized graphene nano-network into a planar perovskite absorber for high-efficiency large-area solar cells

The concept of introducing a charge-collection nano-network into a perovskite layer points to a new direction towards up-scaling of high-efficiency PSCs.

Graphical abstract: Integration of a functionalized graphene nano-network into a planar perovskite absorber for high-efficiency large-area solar cells
Communication

In situ synthesis and macroscale alignment of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanorods in a polymer matrix

Stretch-alignment of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanorods synthesized in situ in a polymer matrix leads to polarized emission.

Graphical abstract: In situ synthesis and macroscale alignment of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanorods in a polymer matrix
Communication

Understanding charge transfer and recombination by interface engineering for improving the efficiency of PbS quantum dot solar cells

In Mg-doped ZnO/PbS QDHSCs, a spike structure is formed between the QDs and the “electron acceptor”, which improved charge collection efficiency.

Graphical abstract: Understanding charge transfer and recombination by interface engineering for improving the efficiency of PbS quantum dot solar cells
Communication

Tin and germanium based two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper hybrid perovskites for potential lead-free photovoltaic and photoelectronic applications

Lead-free tin (Sn) and germanium (Ge) based two-dimensional (2D) hybrid perovskites with a thickness of a few unit-cells possess desirable properties for photovoltaic and/or photoelectronic applications.

Graphical abstract: Tin and germanium based two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper hybrid perovskites for potential lead-free photovoltaic and photoelectronic applications
Communication

The effect of ionic composition on acoustic phonon speeds in hybrid perovskites from Brillouin spectroscopy and density functional theory

The impact of A and X site substitution on acoustic phonon speeds in hybrid perovskites with ABX3 stoichiometry is studied.

Graphical abstract: The effect of ionic composition on acoustic phonon speeds in hybrid perovskites from Brillouin spectroscopy and density functional theory
Communication

A lead-free two-dimensional perovskite for a high-performance flexible photoconductor and a light-stimulated synaptic device

A high-performance flexible photoconductor based on a lead-free perovskite was made and it can be used as a light-stimulated synaptic device.

Graphical abstract: A lead-free two-dimensional perovskite for a high-performance flexible photoconductor and a light-stimulated synaptic device
Communication

Inter-phase charge and energy transfer in Ruddlesden–Popper 2D perovskites: critical role of the spacing cations

Photo-generated charge carrier dynamics in Ruddlesden–Popper 2D perovskites with linear (n-BA) and branched (iso-BA) butylamine as spacing cations have been studied by using transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies.

Graphical abstract: Inter-phase charge and energy transfer in Ruddlesden–Popper 2D perovskites: critical role of the spacing cations
Communication

A new formation strategy of hybrid perovskites via room temperature reactive polyiodide melts

The new precursors MAI3+x and FAI3+x exhibit exceptionally high reactivity towards lead precursors and result in high quality lead-halide perovskite films.

Graphical abstract: A new formation strategy of hybrid perovskites via room temperature reactive polyiodide melts
Communication

Perovskite quantum dots encapsulated in electrospun fiber membranes as multifunctional supersensitive sensors for biomolecules, metal ions and pH

Electrospun PMMA fiber membrane encapsulated with CsPbBr3 exhibits excellent FRET detection performance on trypsin, Cu2+ and pH.

Graphical abstract: Perovskite quantum dots encapsulated in electrospun fiber membranes as multifunctional supersensitive sensors for biomolecules, metal ions and pH
Communication

Molecular engineering of face-on oriented dopant-free hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells with 19% PCE

Dopant-free HTM KR321 showed highly ordered characteristic face-on organization leading to increased vertical charge transport and PCE over 19% in PSC with improved stability.

Graphical abstract: Molecular engineering of face-on oriented dopant-free hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells with 19% PCE
Open Access Paper

Tetradic phosphor white light with variable CCT and superlative CRI through organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals

Exceptional CRI and variable CCT via fourfold phosphors to create a high-quality broadband white-emission with a controllable hue.

Graphical abstract: Tetradic phosphor white light with variable CCT and superlative CRI through organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals
Paper

Interfacial engineering for highly efficient quasi-two dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes

Metal halide-based perovskites are regarded as promising candidates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to their high color purity, tunable bandgap and solution processability.

Graphical abstract: Interfacial engineering for highly efficient quasi-two dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes
Paper

Enhanced efficacy of defect passivation and charge extraction for efficient perovskite photovoltaics with a small open circuit voltage loss

A multifunctional 2D polymeric semiconductor was incorporated to provide surprisingly robust efficacy in grain boundary functionalization and defect passivation of perovskite, which suppresses charge recombination and thus affording an illustrious photovoltage of 1.16 V and power conversion efficiency of 21.1%.

Graphical abstract: Enhanced efficacy of defect passivation and charge extraction for efficient perovskite photovoltaics with a small open circuit voltage loss
Paper

New lead-free perovskite Rb7Bi3Cl16 nanocrystals with blue luminescence and excellent moisture-stability

The development of nontoxic and stable all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) represents a major challenge to unlock widely practical applications in photoelectric fields.

Graphical abstract: New lead-free perovskite Rb7Bi3Cl16 nanocrystals with blue luminescence and excellent moisture-stability
Paper

Low-dimensional formamidinium lead perovskite architectures via controllable solvent intercalation

We report the formation of a new class of solvent-intercalated two-dimensional (SI-2D) formamidinium lead halide perovskites.

Graphical abstract: Low-dimensional formamidinium lead perovskite architectures via controllable solvent intercalation
Paper

Large area perovskite light-emitting diodes by gas-assisted crystallization

An anti-solvent free facile solution processing technique for fabricating perovskite light emitting diodes (PeLEDs), and scaling it up to large areas by slot-die coating.

Graphical abstract: Large area perovskite light-emitting diodes by gas-assisted crystallization
Paper

Lead-free hybrid ferroelectric material based on formamidine: [NH2CHNH2]3Bi2I9

Novel room-temperature ferroelectric crystals with complex sequences of phase transitions.

Graphical abstract: Lead-free hybrid ferroelectric material based on formamidine: [NH2CHNH2]3Bi2I9
Open Access Paper

Effect of chloride substitution on interfacial charge transfer processes in MAPbI3 perovskite thin film solar cells: planar versus mesoporous

Electron injection from perovskite to planar TiO2 accelerates with chloride addition, in mesoporous TiO2 carrier recombination is slowed.

Graphical abstract: Effect of chloride substitution on interfacial charge transfer processes in MAPbI3 perovskite thin film solar cells: planar versus mesoporous
Open Access Paper

Doping and phase segregation in Mn2+- and Co2+-doped lead halide perovskites from 133Cs and 1H NMR relaxation enhancement

Lead halide perovskites belong to a broad class of compounds with appealing optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties.

Graphical abstract: Doping and phase segregation in Mn2+- and Co2+-doped lead halide perovskites from 133Cs and 1H NMR relaxation enhancement
From the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles
Paper

Photo-oxidative degradation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite: mechanism and protection

A new three-step photo-oxidative degradation mechanism of MAPbI3 is proposed. A strategy for protecting MAPbI3 by 2-(4-fluorophenyl)propan-2-amine modification is designed.

Graphical abstract: Photo-oxidative degradation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite: mechanism and protection
Paper

Inorganic CsBi3I10 perovskite/silicon heterojunctions for sensitive, self-driven and air-stable NIR photodetectors

We report on the fabrication of a high-performance photodetector based on an inorganic CsBi3I10 perovskite/silicon heterojunction.

Graphical abstract: Inorganic CsBi3I10 perovskite/silicon heterojunctions for sensitive, self-driven and air-stable NIR photodetectors
Paper

Air-stable lead-free hybrid perovskite employing self-powered photodetection with an electron/hole-conductor-free device geometry

We have demonstrated the fabrication of one of the few lead-free perovskite self-powered photodetectors reported to date.

Graphical abstract: Air-stable lead-free hybrid perovskite employing self-powered photodetection with an electron/hole-conductor-free device geometry
Paper

Influence of hole transport material ionization energy on the performance of perovskite solar cells

Here we show that the Voc in perovskite solar cells primarily depends on direct and trap-mediated recombination, rather than on the energetic offset between the valence band of the perovskite and the highest occupied molecular orbital of the organic transport layers.

Graphical abstract: Influence of hole transport material ionization energy on the performance of perovskite solar cells
Open Access Paper

Cell refinement of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles and thin films

In this work, we performed a detailed study of the phase transformations and structural unit cell parameters of CsPbBr3 nanoparticles (NPs) and thin films.

Graphical abstract: Cell refinement of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles and thin films
Paper

Achieving highly saturated single-color and high color-rendering-index white light-emitting electrochemical cells by CsPbX3 perovskite color conversion layers

Saturated emission from light-emitting electrochemical cells integrated with CsPbX3 perovskite color conversion layers.

Graphical abstract: Achieving highly saturated single-color and high color-rendering-index white light-emitting electrochemical cells by CsPbX3 perovskite color conversion layers
Paper

First-principles characterization of two-dimensional (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1GenI3n+1 perovskite

A novel two-dimensional Ge-based hybrid perovskite is proposed for potential optoelectronic applications.

Graphical abstract: First-principles characterization of two-dimensional (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1GenI3n+1 perovskite
Paper

Highly stable perovskite nanogels as inks for multicolor luminescent authentication applications

Full-spectral emissive perovskite nanogels present outstandingly improved photo-stability, thermal-stability and humidity-stability for anti-counterfeiting two-dimensional barcode application.

Graphical abstract: Highly stable perovskite nanogels as inks for multicolor luminescent authentication applications
Paper

Hybrid organic–inorganic lead bromide perovskite supercrystals self-assembled with L-cysteine and their good luminescence properties

The assembled supercrystals induced by crosslinking of L-cysteine exhibit strong fluorescence, high stability and a PL lifetime of 642 ns.

Graphical abstract: Hybrid organic–inorganic lead bromide perovskite supercrystals self-assembled with l-cysteine and their good luminescence properties
Paper

Grain engineering by ultrasonic substrate vibration post-treatment of wet perovskite films for annealing-free, high performance, and stable perovskite solar cells

The ultrasonic substrate vibration post-treatment (SVPT) of wet perovskite films can eliminate the annealing process.

Graphical abstract: Grain engineering by ultrasonic substrate vibration post-treatment of wet perovskite films for annealing-free, high performance, and stable perovskite solar cells
Paper

Lead-free, air-stable hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite resistive switching memory with ultrafast switching and multilevel data storage

The resistive switching memory based on a lead-free bismuth halide perovskite exhibits fast switching, multilevel data storage, and long-term air stability.

Graphical abstract: Lead-free, air-stable hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite resistive switching memory with ultrafast switching and multilevel data storage
Paper

CaI2: a more effective passivator of perovskite films than PbI2 for high efficiency and long-term stability of perovskite solar cells

Much less additive content of 0.5% CaI2 instead of 5% PbI2 was incorporated into the CH3NH3PbI3 film and a dense and surface-smooth morphology was obtained with much enlarged crystal grains. The champion PSC based on MAPbI3(CaI2)0.005 layer demonstrated a very high PCE of 19.3% with superior long-term stability.

Graphical abstract: CaI2: a more effective passivator of perovskite films than PbI2 for high efficiency and long-term stability of perovskite solar cells
Paper

Facile surface modification of CH3NH3PbI3 films leading to simultaneously improved efficiency and stability of inverted perovskite solar cells

Surface modification based on 4-DMABA allows for the enhancement of efficiency and stability of an inverted perovskite solar cell. This is ascribed to the passivation of the surface traps and recombination suppression, and to the hydrophobic surface capping layer, respectively.

Graphical abstract: Facile surface modification of CH3NH3PbI3 films leading to simultaneously improved efficiency and stability of inverted perovskite solar cells
Paper

Enhanced performance of perovskite solar cells via anti-solvent nonfullerene Lewis base IT-4F induced trap-passivation

We have developed a new method to introduce defect passivation agents using an in situ technique for planar p–i–n perovskite solar cells, during the anti-solvent deposition step.

Graphical abstract: Enhanced performance of perovskite solar cells via anti-solvent nonfullerene Lewis base IT-4F induced trap-passivation
Open Access Paper

Influence of water intercalation and hydration on chemical decomposition and ion transport in methylammonium lead halide perovskites

The application of methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl), in perovskite solar cells has made great recent progress in performance efficiency during recent years.

Graphical abstract: Influence of water intercalation and hydration on chemical decomposition and ion transport in methylammonium lead halide perovskites
From the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles
Open Access Paper

Insights into the increased degradation rate of CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells in combined water and O2 environments

Halide perovskites offer low cost and high efficiency solar cell materials but serious issues related to air and moisture stability remain.

Graphical abstract: Insights into the increased degradation rate of CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells in combined water and O2 environments
From the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles
Paper

Intrinsic and interfacial kinetics of perovskite solar cells under photo and bias-induced degradation and recovery

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a potential candidate for high efficiency low-cost photovoltaic technology.

Graphical abstract: Intrinsic and interfacial kinetics of perovskite solar cells under photo and bias-induced degradation and recovery
Paper

Tuning CH3NH3Pb(I1−xBrx)3 perovskite oxygen stability in thin films and solar cells

Degradation analysis of CH3NH3Pb(I1−xBrx)3 mixed halide perovskites, showing promising environmental stability of CH3NH3PbBr3.

Graphical abstract: Tuning CH3NH3Pb(I1−xBrx)3 perovskite oxygen stability in thin films and solar cells
Paper

Inducing swift nucleation morphology control for efficient planar perovskite solar cells by hot-air quenching

We introduce a pin-hole free CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite layer by using heated airflow during the nucleation stage. We control the nucleation stage which gives a pin-hole free planar perovskite with large grains, resulting in a maximum power point (MPP) efficiency of 14.3% and a high efficiency of 19.0% with reproducibility.

Graphical abstract: Inducing swift nucleation morphology control for efficient planar perovskite solar cells by hot-air quenching
Paper

The mechanism of toluene-assisted crystallization of organic–inorganic perovskites for highly efficient solar cells

We investigate the influence of solvent drenching in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite (CH3NH3PbX) crystallization process with a non-solvent, toluene, during film fabrication process.

Graphical abstract: The mechanism of toluene-assisted crystallization of organic–inorganic perovskites for highly efficient solar cells
60 items

About this collection

Guest Edited by;

Henry Snaith, Materials Horizons Editorial Board Member, University of Oxford, UK

Martyn McLachlan, Journal of Materials Chemistry C Associate Editor, Imperial College London, UK

Xiaogang Liu, Nanoscale Associate Editor, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Xiao Cheng Zeng, Nanoscale Associate Editor, University of Nebraska Lincoln, USA

Zhiqun Lin, Journal of Materials Chemistry A Associate Editor, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

Monica Lira-Cantú, Journal of Materials Chemistry C Associate Editor, Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Spain

Aron Walsh, Materials Horizons Scientific Editor,  Imperial College London, UK

This themed collection is the third in a series celebrating the International Year of the Periodic Table. ‘From Pb and Sn Perovskites to the Next Generation’ features papers from across the Materials and Nano journal portfolio, including Materials Horizons, Nanoscale Horizons, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, B, C, Nanoscale, and Nanoscale Advances. The papers selected for this themed issue focus on the current hot trends in the perovskite field, particularly halide perovskites and their promise in solar cell applications as well as non-oxide all-inorganic perovskites.

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