Themed collection MOFs for energy and environmental applications
Concluding remarks: current and next generation MOFs
The theme, “MOFs for energy and the environment”, reflects the ongoing evolution of MOFs from simply network chemistry to the chemistry of synergistic integration with heterogeneous materials involving other disciplines (the fourth generation type).
Substituent effects on through-space intervalence charge transfer in cofacial metal–organic frameworks
Using a combined experimental, theoretical and density functional theory analysis, important insights into the effects of structural modifications on the degree of electronic coupling and rate of electron transfer are obtained for the framework [Zn(BPPFTzTz)(tdc)]·2DMF.
‘Eye’ of the molecule—a viewpoint
MOF-711 is constructed from zirconium oxide SBUs and benzenedicarboxylate linkers. Rotational distortion differentiates the Zr ions into three types. We show the complexity of these crystals, which are best described from the ‘eye’ of the molecule.
Preparation of hollow metal–organic frameworks via epitaxial protection and selective etching
Hollow metal–organic frameworks are produced by epitaxial growth of protective layers on the crystal surface and selective etching of the interior.
Spiers Memorial Lecture: Coordination networks that switch between nonporous and porous structures: an emerging class of soft porous crystals
This review of soft coordination networks that undergo guest-induced switching between nonporous and porous structures addresses switching mechanisms and their potential utility.
Crystal growth of the core and rotated epitaxial shell of a heterometallic metal–organic framework revealed with atomic force microscopy
Synthesis dependent in-plane rotational epitaxy in a core–shell metal–organic framework determined by atomic force microscopy.
Strategic design and synthesis of star-shaped organic linkers for mesoporous MOFs
Two libraries of novel star-shaped linkers were synthesized using an optimized direct arylation reaction for cheap, fast and easy synthesis.
On the completeness of three-dimensional electron diffraction data for structural analysis of metal–organic frameworks
We investigate the effects of improving the completeness of structural analysis of MOFs using three-dimensional electron diffraction.
A high-throughput screening of metal–organic framework based membranes for biogas upgrading
High-throughput computational screening methodology designed to identify the most promising porous metal–organic frameworks for biogas upgrading.
Understanding entrapped molecular photosystem and metal–organic framework synergy for improved solar fuel production
Synergy between particle size, electron source, and organic base improves the solar carbon dioxide reduction of a metal–organic framework entrapped molecular photosystem.
Chiral and robust Zr(IV)-based metal–organic frameworks built from spiro skeletons
A series of robust Zr(IV)-MOFs built from enantiopure, privileged SPINOL linkers were constructed and employed in asymmetric catalysis and enantioselective separation.
Towards MOFs’ mass market adoption: MOF Technologies’ efficient and versatile one-step extrusion of shaped MOFs directly from raw materials
We demonstrate the one-step mechanochemical production of MOF shaped bodies at large scale with bespoke geometry, strength and stability.
Improved photodegradation of anionic dyes using a complex graphitic carbon nitride and iron-based metal–organic framework material
The heterojunction between a metal–organic framework and graphitic carbon nitride can form a novel porous structure which reduces the rate of electron–hole recombination, thus improving the photocatalytic performance of the composite for wastewater treatment.
MOFs industrialization: a complete assessment of production costs
The industrial production of MIL-160(Al), a prototypical metal–organic framework, was analysed by production cost estimation. The scalable synthesis conditions were confirmed in a pilot scale production.
Photoresponsive frameworks: energy transfer in the spotlight
Photochromic units integrated within metal- and covalent-organic framework matrices act as a switch to control resonance energy transfer processes.
Towards improving the capacity of UiO-66 for antibiotic elimination from contaminated water
Improved antibiotic elimination from water under realistic conditions through pore functionalization and nanosizing of the UiO-66 metal–organic framework.
The application of machine learning for predicting the methane uptake and working capacity of MOFs
Multiple linear regression as a part of machine learning is employed to develop equations to predict the methane uptake and working capacity of MOFs. Only three geometrical descriptors are used in the equations: surface area, pore volume and density.
Why conductivity is not always king – physical properties governing the capacitance of 2D metal–organic framework-based EDLC supercapacitor electrodes: a Ni3(HITP)2 case study
The physical properties of the 2D MOF Ni3(HITP)2 synthesized in batches under different conditions are analysed to understand which variables govern the capacitive behaviour of supercapacitor electrodes prepared using the neat MOF material.
Thermodynamic exploration of xenon/krypton separation based on a high-throughput screening
Nanoporous materials are promising for energy-efficient separation of xenon from krypton by physisorption. We study the thermodynamics behind Xe/Kr separation at low and high pressure for 12 020 materials.
Monolithic metal–organic frameworks for carbon dioxide separation
The use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in industry has been limited due to a lack of shaping technologies. Monolithic MOFs (monoMOFs) offer a viable alternative to traditional shaping offering high density materials for adsorption processes.
Effect of linker functionalisation on the catalytic properties of Cu nanoclusters embedded in MOFs in direct CO and CO2 reduction by H2
We investigated the performance of Cu nanoclusters in Zr-MOF pores towards direct CO2 reduction as a function of linker. We found no evidence of electronic promotion but we showed that higher inorganic node acidity favours longer-chain products.
Esterification catalyzed by an efficient solid acid synthesized from PTSA and UiO-66(Zr) for biodiesel production
PTSA is successfully inserted in UiO-66(Zr) without destroying its original structure (UiO-G), the maximum conversion of 91.3% is achieved and UiO-G could remarkably reduce the activation energy of esterification to 28.61 kJ mol–1.
Applications and developments part 2: general discussion
Fundamental studies and design of MOFs: general discussion
Theory and modelling: general discussion
RSC Prize and Award talk: 2020 Sustainable Water Award: general discussion
Applications and developments part 1: general discussion
Commercialisation and applications: general discussion
About this collection
We are delighted to share with you a selection of the papers associated with a Faraday Discussion on MOFs for energy and environmental applications. More information about the event may be found here: http://rsc.li/mofs-fd2021. Additional articles will be added to the collection as they are published. The final versions of all the articles presented and a record of the discussions will be published after the event.
The area of MOFs and related materials is arguably one of the hottest interdisciplinary subjects spanning chemistry, materials science, physics and engineering. A primary reason for this major interest is the possibility of tuning the chemical and structural flexibility of these materials using an enormous variety of combinations of metal ions, bridging ligands, counter-ions and formation of hybrids and composites.