Themed collection Green Chemistry Reviews
A perspective on developing solid-phase extraction technologies for industrial-scale critical materials recovery
Solid-phase extraction offers numerous advantages for critical materials recovery, and research in the field would benefit from increased focus on environmental impact, techno-economic assessments, and process scalability with real-world resources.
Design strategies of phosphorus-containing catalysts for photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical and electrocatalytic water splitting
The innovational strategies to design P-containing catalysts with enhanced photo-/electro-catalytic water splitting activity are reviewed with respect to phase modifying, foreign elements introducing, morphology tailoring and interface engineering.
Ionic liquids for renewable thermal energy storage – a perspective
This Perspective discusses the evolution and promise of the emerging application of ionic liquids for renewable thermal energy storage.
Transition pathways towards net-zero emissions methanol production
The race to decarbonize our energy systems has led to significant advancement in technologies for harvesting renewable energy, carbon capture and conversion.
From green to blue economy: Marine biorefineries for a sustainable ocean-based economy
Biorefinery is the ideal model to help marine industries to apply green and blue economy principles towards a more sustainable, profitable, and conscious ocean economy.
Biocatalysis in ionic liquids: state-of-the-union
This perspective reviews the current status and prospects of biocatalysis in ionic liquids.
Anode co-valorization for scalable and sustainable electrolysis
A state-of-the-art review on anode valorization reactions to improve the economic viability and scalability of water or CO2 electrolysis.
Production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from lignin-derived phenol and catechol
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) constitute a significant and growing global market; renewables are an increasingly important source of their starting materials.
Furan platform chemicals beyond fuels and plastics
Primary furan platform chemicals are attractive reactants for the production of fuels and polymers. This perspective shows that they are economic starting materials in the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of numerous chemicals of varying complexity.
Towards the design of active pharmaceutical ingredients mineralizing readily in the environment
The optimization phase within API discovery is suitable for environmental considerations through Benign by Design. Pharmacological parameters are not necessarily in conflict with environmental biodegradability as an additional parameter.
Selenium-catalyzed selective reactions of carbonyl derivatives: state-of-the-art and future challenges
Organoselenium-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl derivatives can produce may useful compounds under mild and green conditions. This article aims to summarize the recent advances and give a perspective from both green chemistry and safety viewpoint.
Polymeric waste valorization at a crossroads: ten ways to bridge the research on model and complex/real feedstock
The valorization of polymeric wastes via depolymerization and simultaneous or subsequent catalytic treatment has gained enormous momentum. The goal of this paper is to do a virtuous circle between the subfields of model and real feedstock.
Chemical energy storage enables the transformation of fossil energy systems to sustainability
The enormous dimensions of sustainable energy transitions and their overarching systemic nature require adequate responses from chemical science.
Education in green chemistry and in sustainable chemistry: perspectives towards sustainability
Central role of future professionals in chemistry to promote alternatives towards sustainability.
Catalytic challenges and strategies for the carbonylation of σ-bonds
Direct catalytic insertion of carbon monoxide in chemicals poses the challenge of controlling both the σ-bond activation and the subsequent carbonylation.
CO2 hydrogenation over heterogeneous catalysts at atmospheric pressure: from electronic properties to product selectivity
The fundamental insights into the relationships among the electronic properties of active metals, the binding strengths of key intermediates, and the CO2 hydrogenation selectivity are provided.
A second life for fruit and vegetable waste: a review on bioplastic films and coatings for potential food protection applications
Circular economy approach for various agrowaste-based bioplastic and biocomposite systems with potential applications in the protection of food products and extension of their shelf life.
Research progress on the role of common metal catalysts in biomass pyrolysis: a state-of-the-art review
This review is dedicated to investigating the catalytic properties and mechanism of single and multi-metals in biomass pyrolysis.
A review on the synthesis and applications of sustainable copper-based nanomaterials
A comprehensive review of the synthesis and applications of Cu and Cu-based nanomaterials. A variety of applications including organic reactions, photocatalysis, environmental remediation, and sensors have been included.
Single-atom catalysts for the upgrading of biomass-derived molecules: an overview of their preparation, properties and applications
Developing more efficient and greener catalytic strategies for upgrading biomass to value-added chemicals and fuels is crucial for a more sustainable future. Recently, single-atom catalysts have played an important role in this mission.
Chemically recyclable polymer materials: polymerization and depolymerization cycles
In this review, we aim to summarize strategies for achieving the polymerization–depolymerization cycle to access chemically recyclable polymers and highlight the current studies in this rapidly growing and promising area.
Catalytic processes for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from CO2 and methanol: a review
The present review aims to discuss strategies that have been recently explored by researchers to improve the yield of DMC in its direct synthesis from CO2 and methanol.
Recent progress on immobilization technology in enzymatic conversion of marine by-products to concentrated omega-3 fatty acids
A comprehensive summary of recent research progress applying immobilization technology in sustainable development of marine biomass to value-added products.
Chemical recovery of thermosetting unsaturated polyester resins
This review addresses advances and challenges in the chemical recovery of waste unsaturated polyester resins, presents a new strategy of reconstruction-oriented recovery, and gives promising prospects on the recovery of the wastes.
3D porous biomass-derived carbon materials: biomass sources, controllable transformation and microwave absorption application
This article reviews 3D porous biomass-derived carbon materials as microwave absorbers, including their biomass sources, the transformation from biomass to porous carbon, and their corresponding microwave absorption applications and mechanism.
A review on sustainable synthetic approaches toward photoluminescent quantum dots
The sustainable synthesis of photoluminescent quantum dots (QDs) and their formation mechanisms, advantages, and limitations are discussed. The remaining challenges and future prospects of sustainable synthetic strategies are summarized.
Recent advances in polymer membranes employing non-toxic solvents and materials
Critical review for the recent developments of polymer membranes using non-toxic solvents and materials based on the green chemistry principle.
Production of chemicals from marine biomass catalysed by acidic ionic liquids
Conversions of chitosan, chitin, and crustacean shells to high value-added chemicals using acidic ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts have been reviewed, demonstrating the structural effect of marine biomass on their conversion.
Research progress on the preparation and application of biomass derived methyl levulinate
The research works on preparation and application of biomass derived methyl levulinate were summarized. The problems, corresponding solutions, and future research directions in this field were proposed.
A review of hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil: model compounds, catalysts, and equipment
Bio-oils are an important part of the future energy composition.
Bifunctionalization of unsaturated bonds via carboxylative cyclization with CO2: a sustainable access to heterocyclic compounds
This review provides the state of the art of bifunctionalization of unsaturated bonds in carboxylative cyclization with CO2 and sheds light on its future development.
Recent advances in the incorporation of CO2 for C–H and C–C bond functionalization
Functionalization with CO2: This tutorial review is focused on various approaches developed so far for functionalization of unsaturated C–C & C–H bonds using CO2 to achieve carboxylation, lactonization & lactamization by metal and metal free methods.
Homogeneous modification of chitin and chitosan based on an alkali/urea soluble system and their applications in biomedical engineering
The homogeneous chemical modification of chitosan and chitin in alkali/urea solvents and their possible applications.
Recommendations for replacing PET on packaging, fiber, and film materials with biobased counterparts
What are the most promising biobased PET replacements? Are they economically feasible? Are they sustainable? Industrially feasible? In the future, PET will certainly be replaced by more than one option, e.g., PEF, PTF, bio-PET, and PLA.
Neoteric solvent-based blue biorefinery: for chemicals, functional materials and fuels from oceanic biomass
Chemicals, materials and fuels from oceanic biomass using new types of solvent systems, facilitating sustainable and eco-friendly blue-biorefineries.
Advances in catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde
This review summarizes the recent catalyst achievements in oxidative and non-oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol, and analyzes the reaction mechanism over typical catalysts.
Biomass-derived polymeric binders in silicon anodes for battery energy storage applications
Recent developments in silicon anode binders derived from various biomass sources, with a focus on polymer properties and their effect on battery performance.
Porous organic polymers as metal free heterogeneous organocatalysts
This review addresses the current literature on porous organic polymers (POPs) as a new class of metal free green heterogeneous catalysts.
Polymeric carbon nitride-based photocatalysts for photoreforming of biomass derivatives
Chemical and structural modification of carbon nitride for biomass photoreforming.
Reductive depolymerization as an efficient methodology for the conversion of plastic waste into value-added compounds
Reductive depolymerization allows the valorization of polyester, polycarbonate and polyamide waste in a wide variety of value-added compounds with good yields
Sustainable advances in SLA/DLP 3D printing materials and processes
The 3D printing market is booming in various sectors coupled with an alarming increase in 3D printed plastic waste. This review summarizes sustainable advances in SLA/DLP plastic 3D printing to date and offers a perspective for further developments.
Recent advances in non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction in acidic media and PEMFCs: an activity, stability and mechanism study
The state-of-the-art PGM-free ORR catalysts for PEMFCs, including their active sites, ORR and deactivation mechanisms are reviewed.
Cross-dehydrogenative coupling: a sustainable reaction for C–C bond formations
We provide a review of the progress of cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions in constructing a wide variety of C–C bonds. Sustainable cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions can be combined with multiple forms of energy output.
Electrochemical product engineering towards sustainable recovery and manufacturing of critical metals
This review presents an overview of electrochemical product engineering towards critical metal recovery and manufacturing, looking at process optimization and product innovation aspects.
Engineering graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for catalytic reduction of CO2 to fuels and chemicals: strategy and mechanism
This review summarises the structural-compositional engineering of carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic CO2 reduction to chemicals and fuels experimentally and theoretically.
Enzyme entrapment, biocatalyst immobilization without covalent attachment
The entrapment of enzymes in organic, inorganic or biomaterials can yield active immobilized biocatalysts for chemical transformations without the need to form covalent bonds with the protein.
Aqueous redox flow batteries: How ‘green’ are the redox active materials?
Development of active materials in aqueous organic redox flow battery contributes to the aspect of green technology. The ‘greenness’ of synthetic methodologies for preparing active materials are evaluated using the 12 principles of green chemistry.
Review on lignin modifications toward natural UV protection ingredient for lignin-based sunscreens
Lignin is a natural UV-blocking material owing to its aromatic structure with numerous phenolic, ketone, and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. To produce high-performance and applicable sunscreen from lignin, various modification methods can be applied.
Click chemistry for the synthesis of biobased polymers and networks derived from vegetable oils
Click green chemistry as an efficient functionalization and polymerization method of vegetable oils and their derivatives.
Self-assembly, interfacial properties, interactions with macromolecules and molecular modelling and simulation of microbial bio-based amphiphiles (biosurfactants). A tutorial review
Amphiphiles obtained by microbial fermentation, known as biosurfactants or bioamphiphiles, are reviewed in terms of their solution experimental and theoretical self-assembly properties, interface properties and interactions with macromolecules.
Metal phosphate catalysts to upgrade lignocellulose biomass into value-added chemicals and biofuels
This review presents an overview of the transformation of biomass-derived platform chemicals into value-added chemicals and biofuels using metal phosphate-based heterogeneous catalysts.
Research progress on the photocatalytic activation of methane to methanol
This review presents the recent progress of the photocatalytic conversion of CH4 to CH3OH from four aspects: photocatalysts, oxidants, sacrificial reagents, and CH4 activation mechanisms, along with its current status and existing challenges.
Fundamentals of cellulose lightweight materials: bio-based assemblies with tailored properties
Cellulose building blocks can be assembled into lightweight materials with properties tailored by the density and the morphology.
Applied biocatalysis beyond just buffers – from aqueous to unconventional media. Options and guidelines
It's not only lipases which can be applied in alternative solvent systems to meet industrial and environmental demands. At the hand of case studies and flowcharts this review quickly shows what solvent systems are viable.
Insights into the development of Cu-based photocathodes for carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion
The development of Cu-based photocathodes plays a critical role in in the realm of PEC CO2 reduction, especially for the formation of C2 products.
Electrochemical upgrading of depolymerized lignin: a review of model compound studies
This review addresses advancements and challenges in the use of electrochemical methods as a means of upgrading lignin-derived model compounds to value-added products.
Magnetron sputtering enabled sustainable synthesis of nanomaterials for energy electrocatalysis
This review summarizes recent advances in developing sputtered nanomaterials as catalysts for energy electrocatalysis. In-depth insights into architecture/compositional design, synthesis, mechanism, and performance are provided.
Flow synthesis approaches to privileged scaffolds – recent routes reviewed for green and sustainable aspects
This review discusses the use of flow chemistry as versatile tool for the synthesis and derivatisation of privileged scaffolds, looking at applicability, diversity-oriented synthesis options, inherent sustainability and green chemistry aspects.
Optimisation of catalysts coupling in multi-catalytic hybrid materials: perspectives for the next revolution in catalysis
From the fusion of bio- and chemocatalysts, immobilized in innovative materials, a new family of catalysts is emerging: multi-catalytic hybrid materials (MCHMs). It offers atom and energy savings and, above all, new prospects in chemical synthesis.
Tandem catalysis: one-pot synthesis of cyclic organic carbonates from olefins and carbon dioxide
One-pot tandem procedures represent a green and general approach towards process intensification as they are intrinsically simpler compared to the conventional stepwise processes, do not require intermediate isolation and are generally more efficient.
Chemical reactions in the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass and in the catalytic hydrogenation upgrading of biocrude
This article systematically describes chemical reactions in biomass HTL and the catalytic hydrogenation upgrading of the obtained biocrude and analyze the effects of operating parameters on these two processes, such as reaction temperature, residence time and catalyst type.
Recent progress in the catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide into biosourced organic carbonates
The recent advances made in the catalytic preparation of biobased cyclic carbonates derived from sugars, glycerol, fatty acids/vegetable oils and terpenes are presented, together with a discussion surrounding their potential applications.
Catalytic hydrothermal deoxygenation of lipids and fatty acids to diesel-like hydrocarbons: a review
This review summarizes the reactions, catalysts and influence factors in the hydrothermal deoxygenation of lipids and fatty acids to diesel-like hydrocarbons.
Recent advances in heterogeneous catalytic transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis for valorization of biomass-derived furanic compounds
Catalytic transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis can valorize renewable compounds derived from biomass. Different catalysts have the ability to transfer hydrogen from hydrogen-donor molecules thereby avoiding the use of hazardous gaseous hydrogen.
Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of biomimetic nanocomposite hydrogel for hemostatic and wound healing applications
Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of biomimetic nanocomposite hydrogels reduces the environmental impact and has potential applications in hemostasis and wound healing.
Recent advances in visible-light-mediated organic transformations in water
Water is a green reaction medium, while visible light represents a renewable, clean, and abundant energy source. The recent advances in visible-light-mediated organic transformations in water are summarized.
Lignin to value-added chemicals and advanced materials: extraction, degradation, and functionalization
The recently developed strategies for the degradation and functionalization of lignin enable it to be converted into a wide variety of value-added -chemicals, -and advanced materials.
Role of stereocomplex in advancing mass transport and thermomechanical properties of polylactide
Stereocomplex polylactide with physical crosslinking crystallites, empowering polylactide based materials with advanced performances and opening new opportunities for applications.
Visible-light-induced metal-free coupling of C(sp3)–H sources with heteroarenes
This critical review chronologically summarizes the metal-free coupling methodologies of C(sp3)–H sources with heteroarenes induced by visible light. The articles which are published up to January 2022 on this topic are enclosed here.
The sustainability of phytomass-derived materials: thermodynamical aspects, life cycle analysis and research perspectives
A multiscale approach to sustainability was selected to analyse lignocellulose uses and availability with a focus on biomass growth, paper, insulation, construction wood, information and communication technologies, and biobased textiles.
About this collection
Welcome to our online collection of Green Chemistry reviews. Here we feature Critical reviews, Tutorial reviews and Perspective articles published in 2021. For more information about the different review types go to www.rsc.li/greenchem
Congratulations to all the authors whose articles are featured and we hope readers enjoy this collection.