Themed collection Chemosensors and Molecular Logic
Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment
Fluctuations favour state B = (B,B′) based on kinetic asymmetry combined with moderate dissipation rather than state A = (A,A′) in which the absolute amount of dissipation is greater but where there is no kinetic asymmetry.
Intracellular temperature measurements with fluorescent polymeric thermometers
Intracellular temperature can be measured using fluorescent polymeric thermometers via their temperature-dependent fluorescence signals.
Fluorescent glycoprobes: a sweet addition for improved sensing
We highlight recent progress from our labs for the development of fluorescent glycoprobes for sensing ions/lectins and targeted detection of intracellular species, including the construction of their 2D material composites for targeted fluorescence imaging and theranostics.
Molecular logic gates: the past, present and future
Molecular logic gates, now with more than two decades of collective exploration, are poised for practical applications.
Fluorescent chemosensors: the past, present and future
Fluorescent chemosensors for ions and neutral analytes have been widely applied in many diverse fields such as biology, physiology, pharmacology, and environmental sciences.
pH-Sensing fluorescence oligonucleotide probes based on an i-motif scaffold: a review
Fluorescent i-motif based sensors as promising tools for cellular pH-sensing and bioimaging.
Lighting-up protein–ligand interactions with fluorescent PET (photoinduced electron transfer) sensor designs
Extending the versatile fluorescent PET sensing/switching system causes ‘off–on’ signalling when a ligand binds to its appropriate protein.
Monitoring of Au(III) species in plants using a selective fluorescent probe
A colorimetric and ratiometric probe with a push–pull chromophore dicyanoisophorone system, AuP, has been developed for the detection of Au(III) species with highly sensitive and selective response to real-water samples and living tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Sensing the impact of environment on small molecule differentiation of RNA sequences
Pattern recognition of RNA with small molecules (PRRSM) reveals the impact of environmental conditions on the differentiation of RNA structures.
A multifunctional logic gate by means of a triple-chromophore fluorescent biothiol probe with diverse fluorescence signal patterns
Multiple logic gates such as OR, TRANSFER, INH, NOT, and YES operations were achieved on a single triple-chromophore fluorescent probe by using biothiols and fluorescence signal patterns as the multiple inputs and outputs.
Folded short azapeptide for conformation switching-based fluorescence sensing
Dipeptide-based amidothiourea (azapeptides) bearing folded β-turn structures were employed to build beacon-like fluorescent sensors signalled by pyrene exciplex or excimer dual emission to allow highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescence sensing of an anion able to bind to the structural moiety placed within the turn structure.
Long-wavelength fluorescent boronate probes for the detection and intracellular imaging of peroxynitrite
Two boronate fluorescent probes have been developed for the detection of peroxynitrite (TCFB1 and TCFB2).
A continuous luminescence assay for monitoring kinase activity: signalling the ADP/ATP ratio using a discrete europium complex
A stable Eu(III) complex is reported that binds reversibly to ATP and ADP, providing a ratiometric luminescent signal that enables the kinase-catalysed conversion of ATP to ADP to be monitored in real-time.
A naphthalimide-based solid state luminescent probe for ratiometric detection of aluminum ions: in vitro and in vivo applications
A naphthalimide-based solid state luminescent probe has been designed and synthesized for the detection of Al3+ ions in solution as well as in the solid state with its versatile applications as materials and as a bio-imaging tool for the detection of Al3+ ions under in vitro and in vivo milieu.
Azulene–boronate esters: colorimetric indicators for fluoride in drinking water
Sensitive and selective fluoride indicators consisting of a boronate ester receptor motif, conjugated to an azulene reporter motif, are described. These exhibit a colour change visible to the naked eye when exposed to fluoride.
Supramolecular coordination polymers using a close to ‘V-shaped’ fluorescent 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide Tröger's base scaffold
A novel 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide derived Tröger's base ligand L has been synthesised and subsequently used in the formation of two new supramolecular coordination polymers TB-Co-CP and TB-Cd-CP.
Protein sensing and discrimination using highly functionalised ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) protein surface mimetics in an array format
Ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) protein surface mimetics are used for protein sensing in an array format.
Modular synthesis of 4-aminocarbonyl substituted 1,8-naphthalimides and application in single molecule fluorescence detection
Robust 1,8-naphthalimide cross-coupling methodology unlocks access to derivatives with interesting photophysical properties and diverse applications.
Selenoureas for anion binding as molecular logic gates
The first example of a molecular logic gate based on selenourea/anion host–guest interaction that performs a ternary logic operation using an 1H-NMR easy to read response output is described here.
A highly selective fluorescence turn-on detection of ClO− with 1-methyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-2-thione unit modified tetraphenylethylene
A novel fluorescent probe for ClO− is developed by the combination of a new ClO− responsive unit and the aggregation induced-emission feature of tetraphenylethylene.
A mechanistically-distinct approach to fluorescence visualization of singlet oxygen
1O2 oxidation of a non-fluorescent sulfoxide forms a fluorescent sulfone, with significant (>50-fold) increase in emission. The oxidation occurs via intramolecular oxygen atom transfer from a reactive persulfoxide intermediate. This represents a new, mechanistically-distinct approach to fluorescent 1O2 detection.
Lysosomal tracking with a cationic naphthalimide using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
A naphthalimide-based chemosensing motif capable of turning on the fluorescence emission in solution and in vitro is reported.
Enhanced detection of explosives by turn-on resonance Raman upon host–guest complexation in solution and the solid state
Being colour coordinated allows turn on detection of nitroaromatics by combining molecular recognition with resonant enhancement of the Raman spectra.
TPZ, a bright centrosymmetric two-photon scaffold for bioimaging
The development of biocompatible two-photon fluorophores with a large absorption cross-section is challenging, despite the presence of theoretical guidelines.
A two-photon fluorescent probe for ratiometric imaging of endogenous hypochlorous acid in live cells and tissues
A fluorescent probe enables two-photon ratiometric imaging of endogenous hypochlorous acid, a reactive oxygen species, in cells and tissues.
Dibenzazepinyl ureas as dual NMR and CD probes of helical screw-sense preference in conformationally equilibrating dynamic foldamers
Dibenzazepinyl ureas act as probes to allow conformational analysis of screw-sense preference in dynamic foldamers by both NMR and CD spectroscopy.
Two fluorescein-based chemosensors for the fast detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) in water
Two fluorescein-based chemosensors have been developed for the rapid and selective fluorescence detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) under excitation by visible light.
Rational design of a fast and selective near-infrared fluorescent probe for targeted monitoring of endogenous nitric oxide
We developed a fast and selective near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe for the targeted tracing of endogenous NO which possesses vital features including a significant turn-on NIR response, high specificity, and a fast response.
A bodipy based hydroxylamine sensor
With this research we have developed a bodipy based system as the first “turn-on” fluorescence system for the detection hydroxylamine.
Fluorescent chirality recognition by simple boronate ensembles with aggregation-induced emission capability
Chiral boronate ensembles showed enantioselective aggregation behaviors for chiral diamines and cinchona alkaloids, enabling the fluorescent recognition of their chirality.
Ratiometric electrochemical detection of β-galactosidase
A novel ferrocene-based substrate for the ratiometric electrochemical detection of β-galactosidase was designed and synthesised, exhibiting high sensitivity for β-gal.
An AIE-based fluorescent test strip for the portable detection of gaseous phosgene
An AIE-based ratiometric fluorescent test strip was developed for portable point-of-use detection of gaseous phosgene.
Supramolecular core–glycoshell polythiophene nanodots for targeted imaging and photodynamic therapy
We show that supramolecular core–glycoshell nanodots are capable of targeted imaging and photodynamic therapy of liver and triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Acid/base-controllable fluorescent molecular switches based on cryptands and basic N-heteroaromatics
Two kinds of fluorescent BMP32C10-based cryptands 1 and 2 have been developed.
Photochromism and molecular logic gate operation of a water-compatible bis-glycosyl diarylethene
The synthesis of a bis-glycosyl diarylethene derivative by click chemistry for the water-compatible photochromism and operation of molecular logic gates is reported.
Proof of principle of a three-input AND–INHIBIT–OR combinatorial logic gate array
A designed molecule provides a fluorescent signal according to a combinatorial logic array comprised of three-input AND, three-input INHIBIT and two-input OR logic gates.
One-step, green synthesis of a supramolecular organogelator based on mellitic triimide for the recognition of aromatic compounds
Mellitic triimide derivatives act as supramolecular gelators, which enable the detection of aromatic molecules as a gel–sol phase transition.
2-Nitroimidazole based fluorescent probes for nitroreductase; monitoring reductive stress in cellulo
Two 2-nitroimidazole-1,8-naphthalimide conjugates, 1 and 2, have been synthesised as fluorescence probes for the detection of reductive stress in HeLa cells.
A redox-responsive selenium-containing pillararene-based macrocyclic amphiphile: synthesis, controllable self-assembly in water, and application in controlled release
A selenium-containing pillararene-based macrocyclic amphiphile was prepared. This amphiphile self-assembled in water to form vesicles with redox responsiveness. Then, these pillararene-based vesicles were used in the controlled release of DOX.
Selectively switching on europium emission in drug site one of human serum albumin
A luminescent europium probe has been discovered that binds selectively to drug-site I in human serum albumin, signalled by a ‘switching on’ of europium emission, and accompanied by strong induced circularly polarised luminescence.
A molecular self-assembled colourimetric chemosensor array for simultaneous detection of metal ions in water
An easy-to-prepare chemosensor assay based on molecular self-assemblies of 3-nitrophenylboronic acid and catechol dyes can detect metal ions qualitatively and quantitatively.
A wash-free SNAP-tag fluorogenic probe based on the additive effects of quencher release and environmental sensitivity
A 1,8-naphthalimide-derived SNAP-tag fluorogenic probe can specifically and rapidly label proteins in live cells without requiring a wash procedure.
Visualization of vesicular transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to lysosome using an amidine derived two-photon probe
An amidine-based small molecule two-photon fluorescent probe for monitoring vesicle transport from the ER to lysosome in live cells was reported.
A tumor-specific and mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe for real-time sensing of hypochlorite in living cells
The first dual-targeted (both cancer cells and mitochondria) fluorescent probe for sensing mitochondrial hypochlorite was presented and applied in cell imaging.
A novel colorimetric assay for α-methylacyl-CoA racemase 1A (AMACR; P504S) utilizing the elimination of 2,4-dinitrophenolate
A versatile continuous colorimetric assay for AMACR is reported.
A two-photon fluorescent probe for specific detection of hydrogen sulfide based on a familiar ESIPT fluorophore bearing AIE characteristics
A two-photon fluorescent probe based on an ESIPT fluorophore bearing AIE characteristics was utilized to detect H2S.
End-to-end assembly and disassembly of gold nanorods based on photo-responsive host–guest interaction
The end-to-end assembly and disassembly of gold nanorods were realized via HS-β-CD recognition and controllable by both UV light irradiation and guest competition.
A self-assembled amphiphilic imidazolium-based ATP probe
An amphiphilic imidazolium-based self-assembled probe forms aggregates and selectively recognizes aqueous ATP among other bioactive anions with a significant enhancement in fluorescence emission.
Graphene oxide-enhanced cytoskeleton imaging and mitosis tracking
Graphene oxide enhances the imaging ability of a cell-impermeable peptide probe that targets microtubules, enabling the dynamic tracking of mitosis in live cells.
Anion sensing with a Lewis acidic BODIPY-antimony(V) derivative
Modification of a BODIPY dye with a Lewis acidic antimony group affords a fluorescent fluoride and cyanide sensor.
Glucose selective bis-boronic acid click-fluor
Four novel bis-boronic acid compounds were synthesised via copper catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions.
Targeted tumor detection: guidelines for developing biotinylated diagnostics
We highlight the prominent role of hydrophilicity in the preferential cellular uptake process of biotinylated fluorescent probes.
The Bull–James assembly as a chiral auxiliary and shift reagent in kinetic resolution of alkyne amines by the CuAAC reaction
The Bull–James boronic acid assembly is used simultaneously as a chiral auxiliary for kinetic resolution and as a chiral shift reagent for in situ enantiomeric excess (ee) determination by 1H NMR spectroscopy.
A fluorescent activatable probe for imaging intracellular Mg2+
An BODIPY probe for detection and imaging of Mg2+ without interference from Ca2+ is described.
A fluorescent combinatorial logic gate with Na+, H+-enabled OR and H+-driven low-medium-high ternary logic functions
A fluorescent combinatorial Na+, H+ logic gate is demonstrated that could represent a class of probes for investigating antiporters in biological systems.
Differential array sensing for cancer cell classification and novelty detection
A series of semi-specific peptides reported in the literature to bind various epitopes on cell surfaces were used in a differential sensing array to pattern cell line identity.
Selective recognition of biologically important anions using a diblock polyfluorene–polythiophene conjugated polyelectrolyte
Fluorescence detection of nucleotide phosphates with a polyfluorene–polythiophene diblock copolymer is demonstrated, accompanied by determination of the sensor mechanism.
Boronic acid recognition of non-interacting carbohydrates for biomedical applications: increasing fluorescence signals of minimally interacting aldoses and sucralose
To address carbohydrates that are commonly used in biomedical applications with low binding affinities for boronic acid based detection systems, two chemical modification methods were utilized to increase sensitivity.
Unpicking the determinants of amide NH⋯OC hydrogen bond strength with diphenylacetylene molecular balances
The stereoelectronic properties affecting hydrogen bond strength are investigated with a series of diphenylacetylene-based molecular balances.
Control of electrostatic interaction between a molecular beacon aptamer and conjugated polyelectrolyte for detection range-tunable ATP assay
A new strategy is suggested to fine-tune the detection range by controlling the ionic density of CPEs in the MBA/CPE-based ATP assay.
A fluorescein-based chemosensor for relay fluorescence recognition of Cu(II) ions and biothiols in water and its applications to a molecular logic gate and living cell imaging
Relay recognition of copper(II) ions and biothiols via a fluorescence “on–off–on” cascade has been realized in 100% aqueous solution when excited by the visible light.
Reaction-based indicator displacement assay (RIA) for the colorimetric and fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide
Reaction-based indicator displacement assay for the optical cycle-monitoring of hydrogen peroxide.
Low-dimensional materials facilitate the conjugation between fluorogenic boronic acids and saccharides
We show that low-dimensional materials enhance the conjugation between fluorogenic phenylboronic acids and saccharides.
About this collection
Find out more about Tony Czarnik and AP de Silva and read our interviews with them.