Themed collection Spotlight Collection: Atomic and Molecular Layer Deposition

48 items
Perspective

Area selective deposition using alternate deposition and etch super-cycle strategies

Area selective deposition by super-cycle alternating atomic layer deposition and etch-back processes.

Graphical abstract: Area selective deposition using alternate deposition and etch super-cycle strategies
Perspective

Liquid atomic layer deposition as emergent technology for the fabrication of thin films

Liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD) has emerged as a complementary technology of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to help overcome some of the challenges currently faced from working in the gas-phase.

Graphical abstract: Liquid atomic layer deposition as emergent technology for the fabrication of thin films
Perspective

The chemistry of guanidinate complexes of the platinum group metals

In the present Perspective article, synthetic and structural aspects, reactivity studies and applications of platinum group metal complexes containing guanidinate ligands are discussed.

Graphical abstract: The chemistry of guanidinate complexes of the platinum group metals
Communication

Effect of different oxide and hybrid precursors on MOF-CVD of ZIF-8 films

Vapor-phase fabrication of the metal–organic framework ZIF-8 through the conversion of precursors prepared by physical, atomic, and molecular layer deposition.

Graphical abstract: Effect of different oxide and hybrid precursors on MOF-CVD of ZIF-8 films
Communication

Synthesis of volatile, reactive coinage metal 5,5-bicyclic amidinates with enhanced thermal stability for chemical vapor deposition

Coinage metal bicyclic amidinates for chemical vapor deposition.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis of volatile, reactive coinage metal 5,5-bicyclic amidinates with enhanced thermal stability for chemical vapor deposition
Paper

Atmospheric atomic layer deposition of SnO2 thin films with tin(II) acetylacetonate and water

Our work presents a new process for the spatial atomic layer deposition (SALD) of SnO2 thin films from tin(II) acetylacetonate and water, supported by a DFT study of different Sn metalorganic precursors.

Graphical abstract: Atmospheric atomic layer deposition of SnO2 thin films with tin(ii) acetylacetonate and water
Paper

Toward controlling the Al2O3/ZnO interface properties by in situ ALD preparation

The electronic band alignment of an alumina/zinc oxide thin-film heterostructure solely grown by atomic layer deposition has been determined by XPS/UPS depth profiling, correlating the electronic properties with the interface chemical composition.

Graphical abstract: Toward controlling the Al2O3/ZnO interface properties by in situ ALD preparation
Paper

Growth behavior of Ir metal formed by atomic layer deposition in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide

The growth behavior of ALD metallic Ir has been explored on various surfaces and in AAO nanopores systematically. The surface hydrophilicity and O2 partial pressure are crucial. The Ir infiltration depth into AAO follows a diffusion-limited model.

Graphical abstract: Growth behavior of Ir metal formed by atomic layer deposition in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide
Open Access Paper

Spatial atmospheric pressure molecular layer deposition of alucone films using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide as the precursor

Dimethylaluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) and ethylene glycol (EG) yield alucone films with properties similar to those of films prepared using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and EG but with much higher deposition rates (nm s−1).

Graphical abstract: Spatial atmospheric pressure molecular layer deposition of alucone films using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide as the precursor
Paper

Journey of a molecule from the solid to the gas phase and vice versa: direct estimation of vapor pressure of alkaline-earth metalorganic precursors for atmospheric pressure vapor phase deposition of fluoride films

An easy approach is presented to determine vapor pressures of complexes and thus to evaluate “a priori” their suitability as precursors for AP-MOCVD or spatial ALD. Fluorinated Mg and Ca compounds have been applied to the AP-MOCVD of MF2 films.

Graphical abstract: Journey of a molecule from the solid to the gas phase and vice versa: direct estimation of vapor pressure of alkaline-earth metalorganic precursors for atmospheric pressure vapor phase deposition of fluoride films
Open Access Paper

Thermal atomic layer deposition of In2O3 thin films using a homoleptic indium triazenide precursor and water

In2O3 thin films are deposited using thermal atomic layer deposition with an indium(III) triazenide precursor and water. The films and deposition process are on par with the previously reported indium(III) formamidinate.

Graphical abstract: Thermal atomic layer deposition of In2O3 thin films using a homoleptic indium triazenide precursor and water
Paper

Atomic layer deposition of lithium zirconium oxides for the improved performance of lithium-ion batteries

The newly developed ternary LixZryO coating via a super-ALD process remarkably improves the performance of NMC622 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries.

Graphical abstract: Atomic layer deposition of lithium zirconium oxides for the improved performance of lithium-ion batteries
Paper

Tunable TiO2–BN–Pd nanofibers by combining electrospinning and atomic layer deposition to enhance photodegradation of acetaminophen

TiO2–BN–Pd materials were successfully prepared by combining electrospinning and atomic layer deposition. The obtained materials show outstanding properties for the degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) under UV and visible light as well as high stability and recyclability.

Graphical abstract: Tunable TiO2–BN–Pd nanofibers by combining electrospinning and atomic layer deposition to enhance photodegradation of acetaminophen
Paper

Nanoscale Li, Na, and K ion-conducting polyphosphazenes by atomic layer deposition

We demonstrate the atomic layer deposition synthesis of a family of alkali (Li, Na, K) phosphorus oxynitride (APON) ion-conducting films. The reaction parameters, chemical structure, and electrochemical properties of each material are summarized.

Graphical abstract: Nanoscale Li, Na, and K ion-conducting polyphosphazenes by atomic layer deposition
Paper

In situ analysis of growth rate evolution during molecular layer deposition of ultra-thin polyurea films using aliphatic and aromatic precursors

MLD growth evolution depends on the deposition surface and monomer structure of the deposited film.

Graphical abstract: In situ analysis of growth rate evolution during molecular layer deposition of ultra-thin polyurea films using aliphatic and aromatic precursors
Paper

Facile synthesis of an organic/inorganic hybrid 2D structure tincone film by molecular layer deposition

ALD/MLD hybrid 2D tincone films were investigated structurally post-annealing. GIWAXS showed that individual benzene ring bonds were combined with the SnO layer in a repeated arrangement of the tincone monomer.

Graphical abstract: Facile synthesis of an organic/inorganic hybrid 2D structure tincone film by molecular layer deposition
Paper

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nickel and cobalt phosphate for lithium ion batteries

Both a cobalt- and (novel) nickel phosphate deposited through a plasma-enhanced ALD process have been characterised as an LIB electrode.

Graphical abstract: Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nickel and cobalt phosphate for lithium ion batteries
Open Access Paper

Avoiding water reservoir effects in ALD of functional complex alkali oxides by using O3 as the oxygen source

A new ozone-based route for excellent control of complex alkali oxides by ALD.

Graphical abstract: Avoiding water reservoir effects in ALD of functional complex alkali oxides by using O3 as the oxygen source
Paper

Atomic layer deposition of SnSex thin films using Sn(N(CH3)2)4 and Se(Si(CH3)3)2 with NH3 co-injection

This study introduces the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tin selenide thin films. By changing the growth temperature, the chemical composition of the Sn/Se ratio could be varied for the given precursor injection conditions.

Graphical abstract: Atomic layer deposition of SnSex thin films using Sn(N(CH3)2)4 and Se(Si(CH3)3)2 with NH3 co-injection
Paper

Pulsed heating atomic layer deposition (PH-ALD) for epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films on c-plane sapphire

High-temperature heat pulses interleaved with ALD cycling enables the growth of heteroepitaxial ZnO on c-plane sapphire substrates. This “pulsed-heating” ALD separates the chemistry delivery process from the material’s structural crystallization.

Graphical abstract: Pulsed heating atomic layer deposition (PH-ALD) for epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films on c-plane sapphire
Open Access Paper

Investigations into the structure, reactivity, and AACVD of aluminium and gallium amidoenoate complexes

Amidoenoate complexes of Al and Ga have been synthesised and their coordination chemistry studied in relation to precursor stability. A selection of the complexes were used in aerosol assisted CVD to deposit thin films of Al2O3 and Ga2O3.

Graphical abstract: Investigations into the structure, reactivity, and AACVD of aluminium and gallium amidoenoate complexes
Paper

Atomic layer deposition of thin-film sodium manganese oxide cathode materials for sodium ion batteries

Insights into atomic layer deposition chemistries enable sodium manganese oxide thin film cathodes for sodium ion battery research.

Graphical abstract: Atomic layer deposition of thin-film sodium manganese oxide cathode materials for sodium ion batteries
Paper

Thermal atomic layer deposition of rhenium nitride and rhenium metal thin films using methyltrioxorhenium

The thermal atomic layer deposition of rhenium nitride and rhenium metal thin films is presented using methyltrioxorhenium and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. Methyltrioxorhenium is halogen-free and rhenium films are obtained after a thermal annealing step.

Graphical abstract: Thermal atomic layer deposition of rhenium nitride and rhenium metal thin films using methyltrioxorhenium
Paper

Growth modulation of atomic layer deposition of HfO2 by combinations of H2O and O3 reactants

Two counter reactants, H2O and O3, were individually employed, as well as in combination with consecutive exposure by H2O–O3 and O3–H2O. The film growth behaviors and properties differed when the sequence of exposure of the substrate to the reactants was varied.

Graphical abstract: Growth modulation of atomic layer deposition of HfO2 by combinations of H2O and O3 reactants
Paper

Role of terminal groups in aromatic molecules on the growth of Al2O3-based hybrid materials

First principles investigation of the molecular mechanism of Al2O3-based hybrid materials grown with homo- or hetero-bifunctional aromatic compounds with hydroxy (OH) and/or amino (NH2) terminal groups.

Graphical abstract: Role of terminal groups in aromatic molecules on the growth of Al2O3-based hybrid materials
Open Access Paper

Atomic/molecular layer deposition of Ni-terephthalate thin films

High-quality nickel-terephthalate thin films can be grown through gas-phase atomic/molecular layer deposition using Ni(thd)2 and terephthalic acid as precursors.

Graphical abstract: Atomic/molecular layer deposition of Ni-terephthalate thin films
Paper

Highly-stable PEN as a gas-barrier substrate for flexible displays via atomic layer infiltration

The prolonged exposure time in ALI process benefited the infiltration of precursors into the subsurface of polymer substrates, and the modified PEN substrate with tuned surface chemistry showed excellent barrier property and mechanical stability.

Graphical abstract: Highly-stable PEN as a gas-barrier substrate for flexible displays via atomic layer infiltration
Paper

Water vapor and hydrogen gas diffusion barrier characteristics of Al2O3–alucone multi-layer structures for flexible OLED display applications

Al2O3/Alucone multi-layer films fabricated by alternate ALD/MLD process were evaluated for the gas diffusion barrier property for H2O and H2, indicating enhanced tortuosity and flexibility of multi-layer structure.

Graphical abstract: Water vapor and hydrogen gas diffusion barrier characteristics of Al2O3–alucone multi-layer structures for flexible OLED display applications
Paper

Amorphous AlN films grown by ALD from trimethylaluminum and monomethylhydrazine

Amorphous AlN films grown from TMA and MMH were obtained and investigated. The amount of impurities varied from 3 to 9 at% for carbon, and 4 to 12 at% for oxygen. The values of mechanical characteristics were ∼14 GPa (hardness) and ∼164 GPa (Young's modulus).

Graphical abstract: Amorphous AlN films grown by ALD from trimethylaluminum and monomethylhydrazine
Open Access Paper

Highly conductive and stable Co9S8 thin films by atomic layer deposition: from process development and film characterization to selective and epitaxial growth

A new ALD process using easily synthesized CoCl2(TMEDA) and H2S enables deposition of ultrathin, highly conductive and thermally stable Co9S8 films selectively on SiO2 without growth on Si–H.

Graphical abstract: Highly conductive and stable Co9S8 thin films by atomic layer deposition: from process development and film characterization to selective and epitaxial growth
Open Access Paper

HfS2 thin films deposited at room temperature by an emerging technique, solution atomic layer deposition

The two-dimensional material and semiconducting dichalcogenide hafnium disulfide is deposited at room temperature by atomic layer deposition from molecular precursors dissolved in hexane.

Graphical abstract: HfS2 thin films deposited at room temperature by an emerging technique, solution atomic layer deposition
Open Access Paper

Quinizarin: a large aromatic molecule well suited for atomic layer deposition

Quinizarin is a well-suited molecule for obtaining strongly colored materials by atomic layer deposition.

Graphical abstract: Quinizarin: a large aromatic molecule well suited for atomic layer deposition
Open Access Paper

About the importance of purge time in molecular layer deposition of alucone films

In MLD of alucone using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ethylene glycol (EG), TMA is known to infiltrate into the MLD film taking very long to outgas. An insufficient purge can then lead to an additional CVD component in the overall growth.

Graphical abstract: About the importance of purge time in molecular layer deposition of alucone films
Paper

Multi-metal coordination polymers grown through hybrid molecular layer deposition

Ternary coordination polymers deposited by hybrid molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques are of interest as highly conformal, functional materials.

Graphical abstract: Multi-metal coordination polymers grown through hybrid molecular layer deposition
Paper

Novel hierarchical CuNiAl LDH nanotubes with excellent peroxidase-like activity for wide-range detection of glucose

Novel hierarchical CuNiAl layered double hydroxide (CuNiAl LDH) nanotubes were prepared with the help of atomic layer deposition (ALD) method and exhibited excellent peroxidase mimicking property.

Graphical abstract: Novel hierarchical CuNiAl LDH nanotubes with excellent peroxidase-like activity for wide-range detection of glucose
Paper

A new metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for MoS2 with a 1,4-diazabutadienyl stabilized molybdenum precursor and elemental sulfur

Crystalline MoS2 thin films are deposited via MOCVD using a new molybdenum precursor, 1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,4-diazabutadienyl-bis(tert-butylimido)molybdenum(VI) [Mo(NtBu)2(tBu2DAD)], and elemental sulfur.

Graphical abstract: A new metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for MoS2 with a 1,4-diazabutadienyl stabilized molybdenum precursor and elemental sulfur
Paper

Understanding KOtBu in atomic layer deposition – in situ mechanistic studies of the KNbO3 growth process

Providing a deeper understanding of alkali metal-containing ternary processes in ALD by in situ FT-IR and QCM mechanistic studies.

Graphical abstract: Understanding KOtBu in atomic layer deposition – in situ mechanistic studies of the KNbO3 growth process
Open Access Paper

Composition-tuned metal–organic thin-film structures based on photoswitchable azobenzene by ALD/MLD

We demonstrate the fabrication of in-situ crystalline thin films of various azobenzene (AZO) based photoresponsive metal–organic structures using the atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique.

Graphical abstract: Composition-tuned metal–organic thin-film structures based on photoswitchable azobenzene by ALD/MLD
Paper

Molecular layer deposited alucone thin films from long-chain organic precursors: from brittle to ductile mechanical characteristics

We tailor mechanical properties of molecular-layer-deposited inorganic–organic films through control over the organic precursor length, relevant for battery applications.

Graphical abstract: Molecular layer deposited alucone thin films from long-chain organic precursors: from brittle to ductile mechanical characteristics
Paper

First principles study of reactions in alucone growth: the role of the organic precursor

First principles investigation of the molecular mechanism of the growth of hybrid organic–inorganic thin films of aluminium alkoxides, known as “alucones”.

Graphical abstract: First principles study of reactions in alucone growth: the role of the organic precursor
Paper

Synthesis and characterization of novel zinc precursors for ZnO thin film deposition by atomic layer deposition

Novel zinc precursors were designed, synthesized and used for the deposition of ZnO thin films by ALD.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis and characterization of novel zinc precursors for ZnO thin film deposition by atomic layer deposition
Open Access Paper

Homogeneous Fe2O3 coatings on carbon nanotube structures for supercapacitors

The combination of carbon nanotubes with transition metal oxides can exhibit complementary charge storage properties for use as electrode materials for next generation energy storage devices.

Graphical abstract: Homogeneous Fe2O3 coatings on carbon nanotube structures for supercapacitors
Open Access Paper

Atomic/molecular layer deposition and electrochemical performance of dilithium 2-aminoterephthalate

Crystalline Li-terephthalate and amino-functionalized Li-terephthalate thin film electrodes are fabricated from gaseous precursors with ALD/MLD to show that the electron-donating amino group lowers the redox potential.

Graphical abstract: Atomic/molecular layer deposition and electrochemical performance of dilithium 2-aminoterephthalate
Open Access Paper

Mesoporous ZnO thin films obtained from molecular layer deposited “zincones”

The synthesis of MLD-derived mesoporous ZnO with 20% of porosity is demonstrated and studied by advanced in situ characterization techniques.

Graphical abstract: Mesoporous ZnO thin films obtained from molecular layer deposited “zincones”
Paper

Improving photoelectrochemical response of ZnO nanowire arrays by coating with p-type ZnO-resembling metal–organic framework

Superior photoelectrochemical performance of zinc oxide nanowire arrays is achieved by compactly coating MOF zinc glycolate with p-type conductivity.

Graphical abstract: Improving photoelectrochemical response of ZnO nanowire arrays by coating with p-type ZnO-resembling metal–organic framework
Paper

On the role of micro-porosity in affecting the environmental stability of atomic/molecular layer deposited (ZnO)a(Zn–O–C6H4–O)b films

Correlation between the porosity and environmental stability of Zn-based hybrid multilayer films is studied by means of ellipsometric porosimetry.

Graphical abstract: On the role of micro-porosity in affecting the environmental stability of atomic/molecular layer deposited (ZnO)a(Zn–O–C6H4–O)b films
Paper

Aluminum dihydride complexes and their unexpected application in atomic layer deposition of titanium carbonitride films

Aluminum dihydride complexes containing amido-amine ligands were synthesized and evaluated as potential reducing precursors for thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD).

Graphical abstract: Aluminum dihydride complexes and their unexpected application in atomic layer deposition of titanium carbonitride films
Paper

The transformation behaviour of “alucones”, deposited by molecular layer deposition, in nanoporous Al2O3 layers

Wet and heat treatments of different alucones result in porous alumina with tuneable porosity and pore size.

Graphical abstract: The transformation behaviour of “alucones”, deposited by molecular layer deposition, in nanoporous Al2O3 layers
48 items

About this collection

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been the fastest growing thin-film technology in the semiconductor industry for the last few decades, and is applied in photovoltaics systems and displays. The industrial applications naturally concern only few prototype materials (Al2O3, HfO2, ZnO, TiO2, etc.). However, in recent years the technique has been increasingly exploited towards new application domains and new materials, driving a continued demand for new precursors.

Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a much less exploited counterpart of ALD for purely organic thin films. Particularly interesting though is the combination of ALD and MLD for hybrid inorganic-organic materials. This combined ALD/MLD technique was introduced in 2008 and it is now strongly emerging for various new MOF-like metal-organic materials and inorganic-organic multilayer structures which are believed to open up novel application possibilities.

This collection is guest edited by Dalton Transactions Associate Editor Prof. Maarit Karppinen (Aalto University) alongside Prof. Anjana Devi (Ruhr-University) and Prof. Jolien Dendooven (Ghent University)

Articles will be added to this themed collection as soon as possible after they are published. Please return to this page frequently to see the collection grow.

If you would like to contribute an article to this collection, please contact the Editorial Office at dalton-rsc@rsc.org with your proposed topic.

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