Themed collection Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology Recent HOT Articles
Review of chloramine decay models in drinking water system
Major pathways of monochloramine disinfectant decay, kinetics involved, various influencing factors and the existing models to determine the chloramine decay in drinking water distribution systems are reviewed.
Adsorption of heavy metal ions in water by surface functionalized magnetic composites: a review
This review systematically summarizes the application of magnetic composite adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions in water and focuses on the surface functionalization of magnetic materials.
Harnessing salinity gradient energy in coastal stormwater runoff to reduce pathogen loading
First demonstration of the capture of salinity gradient energy from stormwater runoff to the ocean, used to power UV-LED disinfection.
Integrated experimental and modeling evaluation of removal efficiency and energy consumption for an autotrophic denitrifying biocathode
A mathematical model for autotrophic biocathodic denitrification of groundwater has been developed. The model predictions captured current demand and energy consumption related to reduction of N-forms.
The development of a rapid monitoring method for radiocesium in seawater in the Fukushima region
A new monitoring method has been developed for the rapid assessment of low levels of 137-Cs and its effective concentration and quantification in Fukushima seawater, directly using KCuHCF slurry ink with a 137-Cs recovery exceeding 99% within 30 min.
Recovery of anaerobic ammonium oxidation via hydrazine following sulfate inhibition
The presence of sulfate in sewage treatment has obvious impacts on biological nitrogen removal.
Removal of 293 organic compounds in 15 WWTPs studied with non-targeted suspect screening
The influence of WWTP treatment standard on contaminant breakthrough is explored for 293 compounds.
Emerging investigator series: meta-analyses on SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA levels in wastewater and their correlations to epidemiological indicators
Recent applications of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) have demonstrated its ability to track the spread and dynamics of COVID-19 at the community level.
Elimination of micropollutants by the solar/chlorine process: contribution of reactive species and formation risk of NDMA
Role of reactive species in the solar/chlorine process for elimination of diuron and risk of NDMA formation.
Drivers of variability in disinfection by-product formation potential in a chain of thermally stratified drinking water reservoirs
Increasing hydraulic residence time (HRT) along a chain of interconnected reservoirs enhances the formation potential of carbonaceous disinfection by-products (DBPs) and reduces the formation potential of nitrogenous DBPs, particularly N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).
Emerging investigator series: a comparison of strong and weak-acid functionalized carbon electrodes in capacitive deionization
Strong-acid functionalized cathode is pH stable and sulfonic groups are stable to charge–discharge cycling.
Succession of founding microbiota in an anaerobic baffled bioreactor treating low-temperature raw domestic wastewater
Spatiotemporal development of anaerobic seed sludge in a new ABR after transfer from a long-running ABR treating low-temperature domestic wastewater.
Simultaneous prediction of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides using simulated distribution system tests
This study analysed the spatial and temporal occurrence of 29 disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed by chlorination and chloramination.
SARS-CoV-2 RNA is enriched by orders of magnitude in primary settled solids relative to liquid wastewater at publicly owned treatment works
We compared SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in primary settled solids and raw wastewater samples matched in date to investigate the relationship between the two matrices.
Glycerol-driven denitratation: process kinetics, microbial ecology, and operational controls
This study implicated stoichiometric limitation of influent organic carbon, unique microbial community enrichment, and differential nitrate and nitrite reduction kinetics as determinant factors in glycerol-driven denitratation.
Comparison of disinfection in intermittently mixed (6 am–6 pm) and continuously mixed high rate algal ponds treating domestic wastewater in winter
Daytime-only and continuously mixed HRAPs had equivalent disinfection performance, compliant with reuse guidelines. Daytime-only mixing reduces energy demand and capital cost of wastewater treatment, promoting adoption of HRAPs in rural communities.
Modelling of a CH4-producing microbial electrosynthesis system for energy recovery and wastewater treatment
Electrode kinetics, gaseous CO2 dissolution, mass transfer, and equilibrium of pH buffer and bicarbonate are considered to illustrate the bioelectrochemical behaviors of an MES.
Simple and selective method for simultaneous removal of mercury(II) and recovery of silver(I) from aqueous media by organic ligand 4,4′-azo-1,2,4-triazole
Based on coordination chemistry, the removal of Hg2+ and the recovery of Ag+ are achieved simultaneously by selecting the 4,4′-azo-1,2,4-triazole (Atrz) as an organic ligand only through simple mixing, agitation and filtration.
Reactivities of hydrated electrons with organic compounds in aqueous-phase advanced reduction processes
Novel linear free energy relationships were determined between experimentally measured rate constants of solvated electrons and theoretically calculated one electron reduction potential for the elucidation of reductive reaction mechanisms.
Application of plasma for the removal of pharmaceuticals in synthetic urine
Application of plasma oxidation for removal of pharmaceuticals in urine was assessed and compared to a traditional advanced oxidation process.
Fate of influent microbial populations during medium chain carboxylic acid recovery from brewery and pre-fermented food waste streams
Waste streams continuously introduce active and inactive microbial populations that can influence assembly of microbial communities in chain elongation systems.
Exploring the carbon and nitrogen removal capacity of a membrane aerated biofilm reactor for low-strength municipal wastewater treatment
Sustainable HRT of 3–4 h achieved for MABR effluent with carbon and nitrogen meeting the discharge standard of level I class A in China for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment.
Efficient phosphate recovery as vivianite: synergistic effect of iron minerals and microorganisms
Dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria greatly increased the production of vivianite. Phosphate promoted the dissimilatory reduction of iron minerals and a high Fe/P ratio (2–4) is conducive for phosphorus recovery as vivianite.
Piloting carbon-lean nitrogen removal for energy-autonomous sewage treatment
Unique pilot design and innovative control strategies enabled mainstream nitrogen removal with a low COD to N removal ratio at both summer and winter conditions.
Prediction of NDMA formation potential using non-target analysis data: a proof of concept
In the present study we coupled nontarget analyses data and predictive models in order to estimate the formation potential of NDMA, a nitrogenous disinfection by-product that has been included in drinking water regulations worldwide.
Emerging investigator series: electrochemically-mediated remediation of GenX using redox-copolymers
GenX is a major per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) of environmental concern. Redox-copolymers are explored as selective adsorbents for the electrochemically-mediated separation and remediation of GenX from water.
Chlorinated solvent degradation in groundwater by green rust–bone char composite: solute interactions and chlorinated ethylene competition
Potential inhibitors in the groundwater matrix that affect bone char (BC) mediated dechlorination of chlorinated ethylenes by green rust (GR).
Immunological detection of thymine dimers in indigenous genomic DNA from pre-disinfection drinking water as an ultraviolet disinfection dosimeter
A linear UV dose response is demonstrated using an ELISA assay that measures thymine dimers formed in the genomic DNA extracted from the mixed species of microorganisms filtered from UV treated pre-disinfection drinking water.
Elementary reaction-based kinetic model for the fate of N-nitrosodimethylamine under UV oxidation
UV photolysis is an effective process to remove nitrosamines from contaminated water resources.
The heat recovery potential of ‘wastewater’: a national analysis of sewage effluent discharge temperatures
Environmental water quality data from England are used to establish the excess heat in sewage effluent discharges to rivers and subsequently estimate the national scale heat recovery potential of wastewater.
Development of trash exclusion for mechanized pit latrine emptying
The trash-excluding attachment (Excluder) can be connected to a custom vacuum (such as the Flexcrevator), a vacuum truck, or a sludge pump. The system allows the mechanized emptying of pit latrines with high levels of trash without manual “fishing”.
A new Zn(II) complex-composite material: piezo-enhanced photomineralization of organic pollutants and wastewater from the lubricant industry
A ZnO–[Zn(CPAMN)] complex-composite acts as a piezo-photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes pollutants and industry wastewater under ultrasonication and visible light irradiation due to the low rate of electron–hole pair recombination.
Photodegradation of an ammonium ionic liquid: spiking in urban wastewater and comparison with aromatic ionic liquids
The photodegradation of an emerging pollutant, ammonium ionic liquid, is thoroughly investigated by using an advanced oxidation technique.
A comparative study on the removal of dyes from wastewater by nascent-state manganese dioxide and ferric hydroxide under acidic conditions
In this study, the removal of dyes by NSMD and NSFH was investigated, and two high-quality QSAR models for these adsorbents were established using multiple linear regression (MLR). Finally, the dye removal mechanisms of the two adsorbents were studied and compared.
Chemical removal in waste stabilisation pond systems of varying configuration
Better chemical removal in waste stabilisation ponds was linked to the presence of a maturation pond, higher solar irradiation, and warmer temperatures.
Electron transfer mechanism of peroxydisulfate activation by sewage sludge-derived biochar for enhanced degradation of sulfamethoxazole
The electron-transfer process is the main pathway occurring in the BC800/PDS system and the singlet oxygen pathway is determined to have little contribution to the oxidation of SMX.
Coagulation of organic pollutants by Moringa oleifera protein molecules: in silico approach
This study used a molecular dynamics simulation approach to predict and evaluate the coagulation of organic pollutants around the Moringa oleifera 2S albumin protein extracted from the seed.
Application of a H2-based MBfR in advanced nitrogen removal from real municipal secondary effluent
A potentially scalable configuration of a H2-based MBfR was developed in this study to test the feasibility of treating real secondary effluent.
Decreasing waste brine volume from anion exchange with nanofiltration: implications for multiple treatment cycles
Ion exchange (IX) removes hexavalent chromium from water, but waste brine disposal makes implementation cost-prohibitive in many communities. Nanofiltration treats waste brine for reuse in the next regeneration cycle.
Architecting a Janus biomass carbon/sponge evaporator with salt-rejection and ease of floatation for sustainable solar-driven desalination
A Janus biomass carbon/sponge (JBCS) solar-driven desalination system is composed of carbonized original leaf particles and commercial melamine sponge seamlessly integrated with each other by a simple “soak-dip” method.
Optimization of reverse osmosis operational conditions to maximize ammonia removal from the effluent of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor
RO enables the recovery of clean water and ammonium in anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent. pH governs the ammonia speciation and membrane surface charge and is the key operational factor that affects the total ammonia rejection efficiency of RO.
Emerging investigator series: 3D graphene anchored zerovalent Fe/Cu aerogel activating persulfate for efficiently 2,4 dichlorophenol degradation over a broad pH range
3D graphene anchored zerovalent metal aerogel as an alternative route for the efficient removal of organic pollutants from wastewater.
Impact of sodium silicate on lead release from lead(II) carbonate
Sodium silicate has been used to control lead levels in drinking water, but there is little theoretical support for this practice. We find that sodium silicate is not effective in controlling lead release from lead(II) carbonate.
Reproducibility and sensitivity of 36 methods to quantify the SARS-CoV-2 genetic signal in raw wastewater: findings from an interlaboratory methods evaluation in the U.S.
The reproducibility and sensitivity of 36 methods for quantifying the genetic signal of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater was evaluated in a nationwide interlaboratory assessment in the U.S.
Understanding the formation of recalcitrant dissolved organic nitrogen as a result of thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge
This study for the first time investigated the turnover of dissolved organic nitrogen in lab-scale thermal hydrolysis pretreatment at different temperatures with and without mesophilic anaerobic digestion at a solids retention time of 15 days.
Effects of peracetic acid on aromatic polyamide nanofiltration membranes: a comparative study with chlorine
Peracetic acid (PAA) is being considered as a disinfectant in membrane-based wastewater reuse systems. This study shows that PAA is overall compatible with polyamide membranes and proposes PAA-polyamide reaction mechanisms.
Enumeration and characterization of five pathogenic Legionella species from large research and educational buildings
This graph compares the potential amplification of Legionella spp. and specific pathogenic species in the premise plumbing of five buildings.
Effect of disinfectant residual, pH, and temperature on microbial abundance in disinfected drinking water distribution systems
This work demonstrates insights gained from monitoring absolute microbial abundance in full-scale disinfected drinking water distribution systems and lays a foundation for statistical approaches that could provide a basis for applying these tools.
Emerging investigator series: bacterial opportunistic pathogen gene markers in municipal drinking water are associated with distribution system and household plumbing characteristics
Municipally-treated drinking water (DW) is a potential source of exposure to bacterial opportunistic pathogens (OPs), which can cause infection in susceptible individuals.
Livestock manure improved antibiotic resistance gene removal during co-treatment of domestic wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor
First investigation of ARG and MGE removal in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor co-treating real wastewater and manure shows increased manure loading improves ARG and MGE removal.
UV/chlorine vs. UV/H2O2 for water reuse at Orange County Water District, CA: a pilot study
On-site demonstration tests evaluated 1,4-dioxane removal in reverse osmosis permeate (RO permeate) at the Orange County Water District (OCWD) Advanced Water Purification Facility (AWPF).
Source characterization and removal of N-nitrosamine precursors during activated sludge treatment
Municipal wastewater discharges after secondary biological treatment (e.g., the activated sludge (AS) process) are a major potential source of N-nitrosamine precursors which may impact downstream source water quality.
Advanced electrochemical oxidation for the simultaneous removal of manganese and generation of permanganate oxidant
Emerging electrochemical systems, such as advanced electro-oxidation, provide a potentially powerful alternative to conventional oxidation processes which can often be unsuitable for small, remote and decentralised system applications.
Comparison of the impact of ozone, chlorine dioxide, ferrate and permanganate pre-oxidation on organic disinfection byproduct formation during post-chlorination
Pre-oxidation is commonly used to mitigate the formation of byproducts during post-disinfection.
Detecting hydrogen peroxide reliably in water via ion chromatography: a method evaluation update and comparison in the presence of interfering components
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in complex water matrix can be detected reliably by ion chromatography (IC) due to its superior separation ability.
Assessing disinfection byproduct risks for algal impacted surface waters and the effects of peracetic acid pre-oxidation
Peracetic acid pre-oxidation of algal impacted waters can reduce formation of trihalomethanes but promote formation of haloacetonitriles, due to the degradation of dissolved organic matter and coincident release of intracellular organic matter.
Removal trends of sulfonamides and their ARGs during soil aquifer treatment and subsequent chlorination: effect of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation
Soil aquifer treatment significantly decreased the SA concentration in recharged synthetic water and aerobic biodegradation played a great role.
On the role of a graphene oxide/titania catalyst, visible LED and ozone in removing mixtures of pharmaceutical contaminants from water and wastewater
Pharmaceuticals removal by photocatalytic ozonation: evaluation of radiation fluence, GO content and GO–TiO2 dosage synergies in ultrapure water photocatalytic ozonation. Two reaction kinetic periods proposed for wastewater photocatalytic ozonation.
Mixture effects of drinking water disinfection by-products: implications for risk assessment
Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water have been associated with increased cancer risk but effects of known DBPs cannot explain the mixture effects of disinfected water samples.
Low-cost desalination of seawater and hypersaline brine using nanophotonics enhanced solar energy membrane distillation
A stand-alone small-scale nanophotonics enhanced solar membrane distillation (NESMD) testbed was designed, developed, and tested for desalinating seawater and high salinity feedwaters.
Emerging investigator series: engineering membrane distillation with nanofabrication: design, performance and mechanisms
Anti-fouling and durability are two important parameters that are closely associated with the development and deployment of membrane distillation (MD).
Insight into ferrihydrite effects on methanogenesis in UASB reactors treating high sulfate wastewater: reactor performance and microbial community
Ferrihydrite supplemented to establish DIET between iron-reducing bacteria and methanogens with Fe oxides in anaerobic digestion.
Landfill leachate contributes per-/poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and pharmaceuticals to municipal wastewater
Widespread disposal of landfill leachate to municipal sewer in the US calls for improved understanding of the relative organic-chemical contributions to the WWTP waste stream and associated surface-water discharge to receptors in the environment.
Emerging investigator series: formation of brominated haloacetamides from trihalomethanes during zero-valent iron reduction and subsequent booster chlorination in drinking water distribution
This study investigated the transformation of a THM mixture and the change of toxicity risk in drinking water distribution systems for the first time.
Reactions of pyrrole, imidazole, and pyrazole with ozone: kinetics and mechanisms
Kinetics and transformation products for the reactions of ozone with pyrrole, imidazole, and pyrazole were determined. For the imidazole–ozone reaction, all possible transformation products were identified, completing the mass balance.
Rapid degradation of PFAS in aqueous solutions by reverse vortex flow gliding arc plasma
Gliding arc plasma discharge is an energy-efficient treatment technology for a broad range of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in water.
Emerging investigator series: capacitive deionization for selective removal of nitrate and perchlorate: impacts of ion selectivity and operating constraints on treatment costs
A parameterized costing model was used to investigate the impacts of ion selectivity on water treatment price for selective ion removal with capacitive deionization (CDI) systems.
Influence of the sublayer structure of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes on the overall water flux
The support layer of RO membranes can significantly affect the permeability depending on its sublayer structure.
About this collection
Here is a collection of recent Environmental Science: Water, Research & Technology articles which have been classified as ‘HOT articles’ due to receiving particularly high scores at peer review.