Environmental occurrence, fate, effects, and remediation of halogenated (semi)volatile organic compounds
Guest editors Elizabeth Edwards, Lucy Carpenter, Sarah Blossom and Paul Tratnyek introduce the Halogenated (semi)volatile organic compounds themed issue of Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts.
Retrospective on microbial transformations of halogenated organics
Prior to the 1960s, knowledge of biological transformations of highly halogenated aliphatic compounds was limited, except in mammalian organisms where enzymatic transformations occurred to rid the body of ingested harmful chemicals.
A framework to model exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor environments
We propose a framework based on exposure models for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) to describe the emission and transport of, and exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in indoor environments.
Perspectives of genetically engineered microbes for groundwater bioremediation
Bacteria degrading 1,2,3-trichloropropane were constructed by genetic engineering and may be applicable for groundwater bioremediation, following the example of 1,2-dichloroethane.
Placenta as a target of trichloroethylene toxicity
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent and a common environmental contaminant. Reactive metabolites of TCE disrupt placental cell functions important for pregnancy health.
A perspective on the role of fugacity and activity for evaluating the PBT properties of organic chemicals and providing a multi-media synoptic indicator of environmental contamination
We present a perspective on how models based on the equilibrium criteria of fugacity and chemical activity can contribute to evaluation of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria.
Multi-element (C, H, Cl, Br) stable isotope fractionation as a tool to investigate transformation processes for halogenated hydrocarbons
A review that highlights the utility of multi-element compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) in halogenated hydrocarbon remediation.
Quantifying the efficiency and selectivity of organohalide dechlorination by zerovalent iron
The various types and definitions of efficiency and selectivity that are used to quantitate the performance of organohalide reduction by zerovalent iron are reviewed and compared.
Reproductive and developmental health effects of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a common contaminant in both occupational and community settings.
Trichloroethylene, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in the risk for Parkinson's disease
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile organic solvent, released into the environment from industrial sites. It contaminates ground water and soil and poses a vapor intrusion hazard for residential and commercial buildings.
Natural and anthropogenic sources of bromoform and dibromomethane in the oceanographic and biogeochemical regime of the subtropical North East Atlantic
Transport of air masses from the subtropics, enriched in trace gases from the oceans, coasts and islands, towards lower latitudes under the trade inversion and uplift to the stratosphere in tropical deep convection.
Insights into origins and function of the unexplored majority of the reductive dehalogenase gene family as a result of genome assembly and ortholog group classification
Classifying all reductive dehalogenase genes from organohalide respiring bacteria, including nine newly closed genomes, predicts function and conserved synteny within species.
HNF4a transcription is a target of trichloroethylene toxicity in the embryonic mouse heart
In exploration of congenital heart defects produced by TCE, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4a) transcriptional activity was identified as a central component.
Halogenated semivolatile acetonitriles as chloramination disinfection by-products in water treatment: a new formation pathway from activated aromatic compounds
A new formation pathway has been identified for dichloroacetonitrile, a halogenated semivolatile drinking water disinfection by-product, from activated aromatic compounds.
Comparison of modeled and measured indoor air trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations at a vapor intrusion site: influence of wind, temperature, and building characteristics
There is a lack of vapor intrusion (VI) models that reliably account for weather conditions and building characteristics, especially at sites where active alternative pathways, such as sewer connections and other preferential pathways, are present.
Impact of bromide exposure on natural organochlorine loss from coastal wetland soils in the Winyah Bay, South Carolina
Naturally formed halogenated organic compounds are common in terrestrial and marine environments and play an important role in the halogen cycle.
Disappearance kinetics of 56 toxic semi-volatile organic compounds under common storage conditions
Loss of purified SVOCs in CH2Cl2 occurs at rates much faster than expected.
Examining the correlation between quantifiable SVOCs and organic carbon content or particulate size in benthic sediments as a function of ocean stratum
Stratum-directed correlation between DDT, PAH or PCB levels and TOC or % fines.
Sources and sinks of chloromethane in a salt marsh ecosystem: constraints from concentration and stable isotope measurements of laboratory incubation experiments
Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is the most abundant long-lived chlorinated organic compound in the atmosphere and contributes significantly to natural stratospheric ozone depletion.
Co-encapsulation of slow release compounds and Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 21198 in gellan gum beads to promote the long-term aerobic cometabolic transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,4-dioxane
Presented here is a novel approach where passive long-term cometabolic treatment can be achieved by co-encapsulating in a gellan gum hydrogel a pure bacterial culture and a slow release compound that hydrolyses to produce a growth-supporting substrate.
Compound-specific chlorine isotope fractionation in biodegradation of atrazine
Atrazine is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. Isotope ratio analysis of three elements (C, N, Cl) provide enhanced insight into its degradation pathways and hold promise for a better source distinction in the field.
Reactions of chlorinated ethenes with surface-sulfidated iron materials: reactivity enhancement and inhibition effects
Recent studies on the use of controlled sulfur amendment to improve the reactivity and selectivity of zerovalent iron (ZVI) in reductive dechlorination reactions have generated renewed interest in ZVI-based remediation materials.
Methyl bromide production from dissolved organic matter under simulated sunlight irradiation and the important effect of ferric ions
CH3Br was generated from dissolved organic matter in the aqueous bromide solution under simulated sunlight irradiation, and was enhanced in the presence of Fe(III).
Developmental toxicity of trichloroethylene in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Embryonic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of TCE disrupts development, morphology, heart rate, and behavior in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system.
Isotope fractionation (2H/1H, 13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl) in trichloromethane and trichloroethene caused by partitioning between gas phase and water
This article scrutinizes volatilization isotope effects of chlorinated organic compounds by taking into account all measurable stable isotopes of present elements and the three main kinetic and equilibrium partitioning scenarios.
Reduction of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP): pathways and mechanisms from computational chemistry calculations
Lesser halogenated halocarbons such as 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) are persistent under most conditions, but reductive beta-elimination favors complete dechlorination by hydrogenolysis of the allyl chloride intermediate.
Impact of iron- and/or sulfate-reduction on a cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride respiring bacterial consortium: experiments and model-based interpretation
Process understanding of microbial communities containing organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) is important for effective bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes.
Photochemistry of 2,2-dichloroethanol: kinetics and mechanism of the reaction with Cl atoms and OH radicals
Smog chamber/FTIR study investigates the atmospheric chemistry and environmental impact of 2,2-dichloroethanol.
Diverse dechlorinators and dechlorination genes enriched through amendment of chlorinated natural organic matter fractions
Chlorinated natural organic matter (Cl-NOM) can act as an electron acceptor for organohalide-respiring bacteria, stimulating contaminant dechlorination.
Summation of disinfection by-product CHO cell relative toxicity indices: sampling bias, uncertainty, and a path forward
Predicted toxicity has been used to determine if a treatment process is either beneficial or detrimental to the overall DBP toxicological profile of water samples. Selection of the DBPs to measure is important and may result in biased conclusions.
Complex epigenetic patterns in cerebellum generated after developmental exposure to trichloroethylene and/or high fat diet in autoimmune-prone mice
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an environmental contaminant associated with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and neurotoxicity.
About this collection
Guest Edited by Elizabeth Edwards (University of Toronto), Lucy Carpenter (University of York), Sarah Blossom (University Arkansas Medical Science) and ESPI Associate Editor Paul Tratnyek (Oregon Health & Science University) this Themed Collection features research and reviews on chlorinated solvents, their metabolites, disinfection byproducts, and their environmental occurrence, fate, effects, and remediation.Click here to return to the ESPI homepage