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Themed collection Halogenated (semi)volatile organic compounds (“X(S)VOCs”)

31 items
Editorial

Environmental occurrence, fate, effects, and remediation of halogenated (semi)volatile organic compounds

Guest editors Elizabeth Edwards, Lucy Carpenter, Sarah Blossom and Paul Tratnyek introduce the Halogenated (semi)volatile organic compounds themed issue of Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts.

Graphical abstract: Environmental occurrence, fate, effects, and remediation of halogenated (semi)volatile organic compounds
Perspective

Retrospective on microbial transformations of halogenated organics

Prior to the 1960s, knowledge of biological transformations of highly halogenated aliphatic compounds was limited, except in mammalian organisms where enzymatic transformations occurred to rid the body of ingested harmful chemicals.

Graphical abstract: Retrospective on microbial transformations of halogenated organics
Perspective

A framework to model exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor environments

We propose a framework based on exposure models for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) to describe the emission and transport of, and exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in indoor environments.

Graphical abstract: A framework to model exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor environments
Open Access Perspective

Perspectives of genetically engineered microbes for groundwater bioremediation

Bacteria degrading 1,2,3-trichloropropane were constructed by genetic engineering and may be applicable for groundwater bioremediation, following the example of 1,2-dichloroethane.

Graphical abstract: Perspectives of genetically engineered microbes for groundwater bioremediation
Perspective

Placenta as a target of trichloroethylene toxicity

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent and a common environmental contaminant. Reactive metabolites of TCE disrupt placental cell functions important for pregnancy health.

Graphical abstract: Placenta as a target of trichloroethylene toxicity
Perspective

A perspective on the role of fugacity and activity for evaluating the PBT properties of organic chemicals and providing a multi-media synoptic indicator of environmental contamination

We present a perspective on how models based on the equilibrium criteria of fugacity and chemical activity can contribute to evaluation of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria.

Graphical abstract: A perspective on the role of fugacity and activity for evaluating the PBT properties of organic chemicals and providing a multi-media synoptic indicator of environmental contamination
Tutorial Review

Multi-element (C, H, Cl, Br) stable isotope fractionation as a tool to investigate transformation processes for halogenated hydrocarbons

A review that highlights the utility of multi-element compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) in halogenated hydrocarbon remediation.

Graphical abstract: Multi-element (C, H, Cl, Br) stable isotope fractionation as a tool to investigate transformation processes for halogenated hydrocarbons
Open Access Critical Review

Quantifying the efficiency and selectivity of organohalide dechlorination by zerovalent iron

The various types and definitions of efficiency and selectivity that are used to quantitate the performance of organohalide reduction by zerovalent iron are reviewed and compared.

Graphical abstract: Quantifying the efficiency and selectivity of organohalide dechlorination by zerovalent iron
Critical Review

Reproductive and developmental health effects of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a common contaminant in both occupational and community settings.

Graphical abstract: Reproductive and developmental health effects of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water
Critical Review

Trichloroethylene, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in the risk for Parkinson's disease

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile organic solvent, released into the environment from industrial sites. It contaminates ground water and soil and poses a vapor intrusion hazard for residential and commercial buildings.

Graphical abstract: Trichloroethylene, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in the risk for Parkinson's disease
Paper

Natural and anthropogenic sources of bromoform and dibromomethane in the oceanographic and biogeochemical regime of the subtropical North East Atlantic

Transport of air masses from the subtropics, enriched in trace gases from the oceans, coasts and islands, towards lower latitudes under the trade inversion and uplift to the stratosphere in tropical deep convection.

Graphical abstract: Natural and anthropogenic sources of bromoform and dibromomethane in the oceanographic and biogeochemical regime of the subtropical North East Atlantic
Open Access Paper

Insights into origins and function of the unexplored majority of the reductive dehalogenase gene family as a result of genome assembly and ortholog group classification

Classifying all reductive dehalogenase genes from organohalide respiring bacteria, including nine newly closed genomes, predicts function and conserved synteny within species.

Graphical abstract: Insights into origins and function of the unexplored majority of the reductive dehalogenase gene family as a result of genome assembly and ortholog group classification
Paper

HNF4a transcription is a target of trichloroethylene toxicity in the embryonic mouse heart

In exploration of congenital heart defects produced by TCE, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4a) transcriptional activity was identified as a central component.

Graphical abstract: HNF4a transcription is a target of trichloroethylene toxicity in the embryonic mouse heart
Paper

Halogenated semivolatile acetonitriles as chloramination disinfection by-products in water treatment: a new formation pathway from activated aromatic compounds

A new formation pathway has been identified for dichloroacetonitrile, a halogenated semivolatile drinking water disinfection by-product, from activated aromatic compounds.

Graphical abstract: Halogenated semivolatile acetonitriles as chloramination disinfection by-products in water treatment: a new formation pathway from activated aromatic compounds
Paper

Comparison of modeled and measured indoor air trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations at a vapor intrusion site: influence of wind, temperature, and building characteristics

There is a lack of vapor intrusion (VI) models that reliably account for weather conditions and building characteristics, especially at sites where active alternative pathways, such as sewer connections and other preferential pathways, are present.

Graphical abstract: Comparison of modeled and measured indoor air trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations at a vapor intrusion site: influence of wind, temperature, and building characteristics
Paper

Impact of bromide exposure on natural organochlorine loss from coastal wetland soils in the Winyah Bay, South Carolina

Naturally formed halogenated organic compounds are common in terrestrial and marine environments and play an important role in the halogen cycle.

Graphical abstract: Impact of bromide exposure on natural organochlorine loss from coastal wetland soils in the Winyah Bay, South Carolina
Paper

Disappearance kinetics of 56 toxic semi-volatile organic compounds under common storage conditions

Loss of purified SVOCs in CH2Cl2 occurs at rates much faster than expected.

Graphical abstract: Disappearance kinetics of 56 toxic semi-volatile organic compounds under common storage conditions
Paper

Examining the correlation between quantifiable SVOCs and organic carbon content or particulate size in benthic sediments as a function of ocean stratum

Stratum-directed correlation between DDT, PAH or PCB levels and TOC or % fines.

Graphical abstract: Examining the correlation between quantifiable SVOCs and organic carbon content or particulate size in benthic sediments as a function of ocean stratum
Paper

Sources and sinks of chloromethane in a salt marsh ecosystem: constraints from concentration and stable isotope measurements of laboratory incubation experiments

Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is the most abundant long-lived chlorinated organic compound in the atmosphere and contributes significantly to natural stratospheric ozone depletion.

Graphical abstract: Sources and sinks of chloromethane in a salt marsh ecosystem: constraints from concentration and stable isotope measurements of laboratory incubation experiments
Paper

Co-encapsulation of slow release compounds and Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 21198 in gellan gum beads to promote the long-term aerobic cometabolic transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,4-dioxane

Presented here is a novel approach where passive long-term cometabolic treatment can be achieved by co-encapsulating in a gellan gum hydrogel a pure bacterial culture and a slow release compound that hydrolyses to produce a growth-supporting substrate.

Graphical abstract: Co-encapsulation of slow release compounds and Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 21198 in gellan gum beads to promote the long-term aerobic cometabolic transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,4-dioxane
Paper

Compound-specific chlorine isotope fractionation in biodegradation of atrazine

Atrazine is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. Isotope ratio analysis of three elements (C, N, Cl) provide enhanced insight into its degradation pathways and hold promise for a better source distinction in the field.

Graphical abstract: Compound-specific chlorine isotope fractionation in biodegradation of atrazine
Paper

Reactions of chlorinated ethenes with surface-sulfidated iron materials: reactivity enhancement and inhibition effects

Recent studies on the use of controlled sulfur amendment to improve the reactivity and selectivity of zerovalent iron (ZVI) in reductive dechlorination reactions have generated renewed interest in ZVI-based remediation materials.

Graphical abstract: Reactions of chlorinated ethenes with surface-sulfidated iron materials: reactivity enhancement and inhibition effects
Paper

Methyl bromide production from dissolved organic matter under simulated sunlight irradiation and the important effect of ferric ions

CH3Br was generated from dissolved organic matter in the aqueous bromide solution under simulated sunlight irradiation, and was enhanced in the presence of Fe(III).

Graphical abstract: Methyl bromide production from dissolved organic matter under simulated sunlight irradiation and the important effect of ferric ions
Paper

Developmental toxicity of trichloroethylene in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Embryonic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of TCE disrupts development, morphology, heart rate, and behavior in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system.

Graphical abstract: Developmental toxicity of trichloroethylene in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Paper

Isotope fractionation (2H/1H, 13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl) in trichloromethane and trichloroethene caused by partitioning between gas phase and water

This article scrutinizes volatilization isotope effects of chlorinated organic compounds by taking into account all measurable stable isotopes of present elements and the three main kinetic and equilibrium partitioning scenarios.

Graphical abstract: Isotope fractionation (2H/1H, 13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl) in trichloromethane and trichloroethene caused by partitioning between gas phase and water
Open Access Paper

Reduction of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP): pathways and mechanisms from computational chemistry calculations

Lesser halogenated halocarbons such as 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) are persistent under most conditions, but reductive beta-elimination favors complete dechlorination by hydrogenolysis of the allyl chloride intermediate.

Graphical abstract: Reduction of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP): pathways and mechanisms from computational chemistry calculations
Paper

Impact of iron- and/or sulfate-reduction on a cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride respiring bacterial consortium: experiments and model-based interpretation

Process understanding of microbial communities containing organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) is important for effective bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes.

Graphical abstract: Impact of iron- and/or sulfate-reduction on a cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride respiring bacterial consortium: experiments and model-based interpretation
Paper

Photochemistry of 2,2-dichloroethanol: kinetics and mechanism of the reaction with Cl atoms and OH radicals

Smog chamber/FTIR study investigates the atmospheric chemistry and environmental impact of 2,2-dichloroethanol.

Graphical abstract: Photochemistry of 2,2-dichloroethanol: kinetics and mechanism of the reaction with Cl atoms and OH radicals
Paper

Diverse dechlorinators and dechlorination genes enriched through amendment of chlorinated natural organic matter fractions

Chlorinated natural organic matter (Cl-NOM) can act as an electron acceptor for organohalide-respiring bacteria, stimulating contaminant dechlorination.

Graphical abstract: Diverse dechlorinators and dechlorination genes enriched through amendment of chlorinated natural organic matter fractions
Paper

Summation of disinfection by-product CHO cell relative toxicity indices: sampling bias, uncertainty, and a path forward

Predicted toxicity has been used to determine if a treatment process is either beneficial or detrimental to the overall DBP toxicological profile of water samples. Selection of the DBPs to measure is important and may result in biased conclusions.

Graphical abstract: Summation of disinfection by-product CHO cell relative toxicity indices: sampling bias, uncertainty, and a path forward
Paper

Complex epigenetic patterns in cerebellum generated after developmental exposure to trichloroethylene and/or high fat diet in autoimmune-prone mice

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an environmental contaminant associated with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and neurotoxicity.

Graphical abstract: Complex epigenetic patterns in cerebellum generated after developmental exposure to trichloroethylene and/or high fat diet in autoimmune-prone mice
31 items

About this collection

Guest Edited by Elizabeth Edwards (University of Toronto), Lucy Carpenter (University of York), Sarah Blossom (University Arkansas Medical Science) and ESPI Associate Editor Paul Tratnyek (Oregon Health & Science University) this Themed Collection features research and reviews on chlorinated solvents, their metabolites, disinfection byproducts, and their environmental occurrence, fate, effects, and remediation.

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