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Themed collection Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs

34 items
AMC Technical Brief

Identification of plastics in cultural heritage collections by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)

This Technical Brief focuses on the application of FTIR spectroscopy and outlines the different types of materials commonly found in museum collections. The different types of attachments and techniques are also described here.

Graphical abstract: Identification of plastics in cultural heritage collections by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Are my data normal?

The normal distribution is the expected outcome when a result stems from numerous stages of the measurement process, each of which introduces a small independent error. Sometimes we need to test whether a dataset complies with that expectation.

Graphical abstract: Are my data normal?
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

A ‘Periodic Table’ of mass spectrometry instrumentation and acronyms

An overview of mass spectrometry instrumentation is combined with a novel presentation of the techniques and components which aids in decoding their acronyms.

Graphical abstract: A ‘Periodic Table’ of mass spectrometry instrumentation and acronyms
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in cultural heritage

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been increasingly used in the last decade for the identification of organic colourants in works of art. This technical brief focuses on the practical aspects of SERS in its application to the analysis of cultural heritage material.

Graphical abstract: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in cultural heritage
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

dPCR – the digital polymerase chain reaction

The digital polymerase chain reaction provides an important step forwards in the quantitative study of DNA.

Graphical abstract: dPCR – the digital polymerase chain reaction
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Proficiency testing of sampling

General guidelines for the proficiency testing of sampling are required to handle the special complications involved.

Graphical abstract: Proficiency testing of sampling
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of porcelain: Background paper

X-ray fluorescence is used for a wide variety of purposes in the examination of heritage objects made from porcelain.

Graphical abstract: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of porcelain: Background paper
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Chemical metrology

This technical brief aims to dispel the mythology of metrology, explain important aspects and demonstrate the value of metrology to chemical measurements.

Graphical abstract: Chemical metrology
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

UV-visible-NIR reflectance spectrophotometry in cultural heritage: Background paper

Diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral range is becoming a widely-used tool for the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage objects.

Graphical abstract: UV-visible-NIR reflectance spectrophotometry in cultural heritage: Background paper
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

z-Scores and other scores in chemical proficiency testing—their meanings, and some common misconceptions

ISO 13528 (2015) describes several types of score suitable for interlaboratory studies, but only the simple z-score based on fitness for purpose is recommended here for chemical proficiency tests.

Graphical abstract: z-Scores and other scores in chemical proficiency testing—their meanings, and some common misconceptions
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Representative sampling? Views from a regulator and a measurement scientist

The term ‘representative sample’ has been redefined many times and become ambiguous. The recommended alternative is ‘appropriate sample’, implying an uncertainty the is fit for purpose.

Graphical abstract: Representative sampling? Views from a regulator and a measurement scientist
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

AMC Datasets—a resource for analytical scientists

The datasets provide opportunities for the analyst to try out a variety of statistical procedures for investigating the outcome of chemical measurements.

Graphical abstract: AMC Datasets—a resource for analytical scientists
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Sampling theory and sampling uncertainty

The strengths and limitations of two approaches to the uncertainty derived from sampling (UfS) are compared. Quantitatively, the experimental approach for estimating UfS is more reliable.

Graphical abstract: Sampling theory and sampling uncertainty
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

An analyst's guide to precision

Precision, quantified as its inverse, is strongly dependent on the conditions of measurement, and is importantly related to uncertainty.

Graphical abstract: An analyst's guide to precision
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Using the Grubbs and Cochran tests to identify outliers

The Grubbs test can be used to identify outliers in the results of replicated measurements. The Cochran test is used to identify groups of results with outlying variance in analysis of variance.

Graphical abstract: Using the Grubbs and Cochran tests to identify outliers
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Fitness for purpose: the key feature in analytical proficiency testing

Scoring in proficiency testing of analytical laboratories should be based on a fitness-for-purpose criterion.

Graphical abstract: Fitness for purpose: the key feature in analytical proficiency testing
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Raman spectroscopy in cultural heritage: Background paper

This Technical Brief outlines the advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy in cultural heritage research, what the technique can be used for and what type of information can be gathered. The different types of equipment, lasers and experimental set-ups are also discussed.

Graphical abstract: Raman spectroscopy in cultural heritage: Background paper
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Heritage Science – an introduction

Heritage Science is the scientific study of cultural and historic artefacts to assist their conservation and preservation.

Graphical abstract: Heritage Science – an introduction
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Sample stability studies for environmental analysis

Ensuring the stability of the test material between sampling and analysis is an essential aspect of chemical measurement.

Graphical abstract: Sample stability studies for environmental analysis
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Unbalanced robust ANOVA for the estimation of measurement uncertainty at reduced cost

For the estimation of uncertainty from sampling, an unbalanced design combined with a robust analysis of variance provides an economic experiment that is not sensitive to a small proportion of outlying results. Software is provided.

Graphical abstract: Unbalanced robust ANOVA for the estimation of measurement uncertainty at reduced cost
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Meat and poultry nitrogen factors

The determination of nitrogen as a quantitative marker for meat fat-free protein and the calculation of meat content of compound foods is the established official chemical method to enforce labelling declarations of meat content in food products.

Graphical abstract: Meat and poultry nitrogen factors
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Seafood nitrogen factors

The determination of nitrogen as a quantitative marker for fat-free protein is the official chemical enforcement method for the calculation of seafood content of seafood products.

Graphical abstract: Seafood nitrogen factors
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

The “Phase-of-the-Moon” paradox in uncertainty estimation

Many extraneous factors can affect an analytical result. Analysts preparing an uncertainty budget should use judgement in deciding whether to include uncertainty resulting from empirical tests of implausible influences.

Graphical abstract: The “Phase-of-the-Moon” paradox in uncertainty estimation
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Random samples

A representative sample must be unbiased and with an associated between-sample standard deviation that is smaller than that regarded as fit for purpose in the application.

Graphical abstract: Random samples
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

PCR – the polymerase chain reaction

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has widespread analytical applications in the food, environmental, medical and forensic fields. This Technical Brief covers the basics of PCR and some of its variations.

Graphical abstract: PCR – the polymerase chain reaction
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Estimating sampling uncertainty – how many duplicate samples are needed?

Uncertainty from sampling can be estimated by using a hierarchical experiment, but the quality of the uncertainty estimates has to be balanced against the size (and cost) of the experiment.

Graphical abstract: Estimating sampling uncertainty – how many duplicate samples are needed?
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

An introduction to non-parametric statistics

Non-parametric statistical methods for significance testing make few assumptions about the distribution of results and are often simple to use.

Graphical abstract: An introduction to non-parametric statistics
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

What causes most errors in chemical analysis?

Errors in chemical analysis are often discussed but seldom reliably attributed to specific causes. Feedback from participants in proficiency tests is an ideal source of information, however, and a recent study has shown that simple human error is by far the main culprit.

Graphical abstract: What causes most errors in chemical analysis?
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Experimental design and optimisation (4): Plackett–Burman designs

Good experimental design is important in many analytical and other chemical studies. The Plackett–Burman method is a popular and economical approach that gives information, in a manageable number of experiments, on the effects of many factors that might influence a chemical measurement.

Graphical abstract: Experimental design and optimisation (4): Plackett–Burman designs
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Checking the quality of contracted-out analysis

Contracted-out analysis is normally conducted against a specification of the maximum uncertainty acceptable in the results. This Technical Brief outlines some methods by which customers can check whether the specification is being fulfilled.

Graphical abstract: Checking the quality of contracted-out analysis
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Dark uncertainty

Analysts following the GUM method for expressing the uncertainty of their results have a strong tendency to underestimate. This stems from the difficulty of expressing as a measurement model procedures as complex as chemical measurement. The discrepancy is referred to as ‘dark uncertainty’.

Graphical abstract: Dark uncertainty
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Bayesian statistics in action

This Technical Brief outlines some examples of the importance of Bayesian statistical methods in a variety of areas of applied analytical science.

Graphical abstract: Bayesian statistics in action
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Quality control of routine sampling in chemical analysis

Samples from one target differ in composition from the target and from each other. Randomised duplication provides a basis for quality control of sampling and indicates when sampling uncertainty exceeds expectations.

Graphical abstract: Quality control of routine sampling in chemical analysis
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
AMC Technical Brief

Robust regression: An introduction

The latest Technical Brief from the Analytical Methods Committee examines applications of regression methods for calibration and comparison.

Graphical abstract: Robust regression: An introduction
From the themed collection: Analytical Methods Committee Technical Briefs
34 items

About this collection

The Analytical Methods Committee (AMC) is the Committee of the Analytical Division that handles matters of technical importance to the Analytical Science Community. The broad aim of the AMC is to participate in national and international efforts to establish a comprehensive framework for appropriate quality in chemical measurement, and to keep the analytical science community informed of developments. The AMC produces Reports and regular Technical Briefs (TBs) on a wide range of analytical topics to keep the analytical science community informed of developments. The Technical Briefs have been collated in this online collection. New TBs will be added as they are published.

When citing these articles please cite the number of the AMCTB eg. Analytical Methods Committee AMCTB No. 82 as the “authors” of the article.

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