Tomato-fruit-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit Fusobacterium nucleatum via lipid-mediated mechanism
Nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EV) are essential for cell communication. Studies on EV from natural sources including edible plants are gaining momentum due to the biological implications. In this study, EV from tomato fruit were isolated by ultracentrifugation and their physical and morphological features along with their biocargo profiles were analyzed. We found that tomato EV promote the growth of probiotic Lactobacillus species, while inhibiting growth of the opportunistic intestinal pathogens Clostridioides difficile and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Tomato EV reversed microbiota dysbiosis caused by F. nucleatum in a simulator of the gut microbiota fermentation model. Phospholipid analysis of tomato EV revealed that the anti-bacterial effect of tomato-EV was driven by the presence of specific lipids in the EV, as demonstrated by lipid depletion and reconstitution experiments. The findings suggest the potential of tomato-derived EV for treating gut microbiota dysbiosis and preventing intestinal bacterial infections.