Ononis spinosa L., an edible and medicinal plant: UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap/MS chemical profiling and biological activities of the herbal extract
This study explored the chemical profile of the aerial parts of Ononis spinosa and further investigated its biological activities. Chemical profiling of the extract revealed the presence of 63 different compounds: phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides and aglycones, isoflavonoid glycosides and aglycones, and other related compounds. Our results revealed that the extract was active against 8 strains of free floating bacteria. It showed anti-biofilm potential against Staphylococcus aureus and was able to supress the production of staphyloxanthin in S. aureus at sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated by using several assays (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, and metal chelating assay), which showed that the extract exhibited a dose dependent activity. Inhibition of AChE, BChE, amylase, glucosidase and tyrosinase was achieved by the extract, demonstrating its anti-enzymatic activity. The antiproliferative potential of the extract towards human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, SiHa and A172) was determined by using the crystal violet assay. Ki67, a marker of proliferation was downregulated in the A172 glioblastoma cell line.