Non-peptide secondary metabolites from poisonous mushrooms: overview of chemistry, bioactivity, and biosynthesis
Covering: up to June 2021
A wide variety of mushrooms have traditionally been recognized as edible fungi with high nutritional value and low calories, and abundantly produce structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, accidental ingestion of poisonous mushrooms can result in serious illnesses and even death. Chemically, mushroom poisoning is associated with secondary metabolites produced in poisonous mushrooms, causing specific toxicity. However, many poisonous mushrooms have not been fully investigated for their secondary metabolites, and the secondary metabolites of poisonous mushrooms have not been systematically summarized for details such as chemical composition and biosynthetic mechanisms. The isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from poisonous mushrooms have great research value since these compounds could be lethal toxins that contribute to the toxicity of mushrooms or could provide lead compounds with remarkable biological activities that can promote advances in other related disciplines, such as biochemistry and pharmacology. In this review, we summarize the structures and biological activities of secondary metabolites identified from poisonous mushrooms and provide an overview of the current information on these metabolites, focusing on their chemistry, bioactivity, and biosynthesis.