Secondary metabolites from mangrove-associated fungi: source, chemistry and bioactivities†
Covering 1989 to 2020
The mangrove forests are a complex ecosystem occurring at tropical and subtropical intertidal estuarine zones and nourish a diverse group of microorganisms including fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, and protozoa. Among the mangrove microbial community, mangrove associated fungi, as the second-largest ecological group of the marine fungi, not only play an essential role in creating and maintaining this biosphere but also represent a rich source of structurally unique and diverse bioactive secondary metabolites, attracting significant attention of organic chemists and pharmacologists. This review summarizes the discovery relating to the source and characteristics of metabolic products isolated from mangrove-associated fungi over the past thirty years (1989–2020). Its emphasis included 1387 new metabolites from 451 papers, focusing on bioactivity and the unique chemical diversity of these natural products.