Themed collection Host-Guest Chemistry
Calixarene-mediated host–guest interactions leading to supramolecular assemblies: visualization by microscopy
Supramolecular host–guest chemistry of calixarenes has been well explored based on spectroscopy, though their architectures can only be revealed through microscopy. Therefore, this article brings out microscopy features into light in a comparative manner.
Controlled release of drug molecules by pillararene-modified nanosystems
In this review, we summarize the advance of stimuli-responsive pillararene modified nanosystems for controlled release of drugs from the perspectives of decomposition release and gated release, and describe in detail the controlled release of recently developed photo-, pH-, thermal-, chemical- and multi-responsive nanosystems.
Molecular tweezers – a new class of potent broad-spectrum antivirals against enveloped viruses
The molecular tweezer CLR01 binds to the choline head group of phospholipids inside lipid rafts, raises local surface tension and thus disrupts viral membranes.
Supramolecular helices from helical building blocks via head-to-tail intermolecular interactions
Helical building blocks can self-assemble into supramolecular helices via head-to-tail intermolecular interactions, wherein good propagation of helicity operates, exhibiting favourable homochiral elongation and functional helical channel structures.
Macrocyclic host molecules with aromatic building blocks: the state of the art and progress
The diversity of aromatic building blocks, bridging groups, and their connection patterns determines the richness of macrocyclic host molecules (MHMs). The MHMs with new aromatic building blocks reported in the last ten years were summarized and discussed.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as host materials for the enhanced delivery of biomacromolecular therapeutics
We summarize recent progress in the enhanced delivery of biomacromolecular therapeutics for disease treatment using metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as host materials.
Covalently bridged pillararene-based oligomers: from construction to applications
This feature article reviews the structural design, synthetic methods, and multi-field applications of covalently bridged pillararene-based oligomers (CBPOs).
Keggin-type polyoxometalate-based crown ether complex for lithium–sulfur batteries
A novel supramolecular assembly built from Keggin-type polyoxometalates and crown-6 ether building blocks was first applied as sulfur host in lithium–sulfur batteries to resolve remaining critical challenge of polysulfide shuttle effect.
Highly selective molecular sieving of cis- over trans-1,2-dichloroethene isomers
An economic and energy-efficient adsorptive molecular sieving approach is demonstrated for the separation of the cis-DCE isomer with a purity of ∼96% using trianglimine macrocycles.
Pillararene-based rotaxanes with salicylaldimine as the stopper: synthesis, characterization and application in the fluorescence turn-on sensing of Zn2+ in water
Unexpected strongly luminescent complexes were constructed via the weakly luminescent rotaxane coordinating with Zn2+ specifically due to the coordination-induced emission effect.
Calixarenes with halogen bond donor groups as selective and efficient anion transporters
A calixarene with three preorganised halogen bond donating groups gives >100-fold selectivity for Cl− uniport over HCl symport, in contrast to analogous compounds with strong hydrogen bond donating groups.
Host–guest chemistry under confinement: peeking at early self-assembly events
Nanoscopic lateral confinement created on a graphite surface enabled the study of embryonic stages of molecular self-assembly on solid surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy performed at the solution/solid interface.
semiaza-Bambusurils are anion-specific transmembrane transporters
The most efficient anion transporters are those that agree with Lipinski's rule-of-lipophilicity, exhibiting a partition coefficient (clog Po/w) close to 5.
A dipodal bimane–ditriazole–diCu(II) complex serves as an ultrasensitive water sensor
A bimane ditriazole–copper(II) complex serves as an ultrasensitive water sensor. Key features of the system also include rapid response times and good selectivity for water compared to other protic solvents.
Rim-differentiated pillararene based nonporous adaptive crystals
An easy to operate and energy-saving adsorptive separation method using nonporous adaptive crystals of rim-differentiated pillararene (RDP) was developed. The adaptive RDP crystals separate dichloromethane from a halomethane mixture with 99.1% purity.
Synthesis of a large-cavity carbazole macrocycle for size-dependent recognition
A large-sized carbazole macrocycle shows size-dependent recognition towards large-volume tetrapropylammonium salts.
Rotaxane-branched radical dendrimers with TEMPO termini
The precise synthesis of novel rotaxane-branched radical dendrimers with up to 24 TEMPO radicals as termini was achieved.
Tweezer-type binding cavity formed by the helical folding of a carbazole–pyridine oligomer
Helical folding of a carbazole–pyridine oligomer generates a tweezer-type binding cavity which allows for the intercalation of a naphthalenediimide guest.
Triple-stranded triptycene-based metallo-supramolecular helicate displaying efficient encapsulation of bulky guest molecules
A triple-stranded metallo-supramolecular helicate based on 2,7-disubstituted triptycene was easily constructed, and shows efficient encapsulation of quaternary ammonium guests.
Multi-NSAID-based Zn(II) coordination complex-derived metallogelators/metallogels as plausible multi-drug self-delivery systems
Metallogelators/metallogels derived from a series of NSAID-based Zn(II) coordination complexes have been developed as plausible multi-drug self-delivery systems.
Biophysical and in silico characterization of NrtA: a protein-based host for aqueous nitrate and nitrite recognition
A combination of isothermal titration calorimetry experiments and molecular dynamics simulations reveal how the NrtA protein recognizes nitrate versus nitrite in water.
A hydrogel with supramolecular surface functionalization for cancer cell capture and multicellular spheroid growth and release
A hydrogel scaffold with a non-fouling but specific cancer cell-adhesive surface fabricated via host–guest interactions captures cancer cells and promotes growth and release of multicellular spheroids.
Silver nanoparticles modified by water-soluble leaning towerarenes for sensing and catalysis
A hybrid nanoplatform was fabricated using a towerarene sodium salt as a stabiliser on the surface of silver nanoparticles, showing good performance in catalysis and detection.
Pillararene-containing polymers with tunable fluorescence properties based on host–guest interactions
Linear polymers containing pillararenes as the pendant groups were designed and synthesized via a ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Such polymers could exhibit tunable fluorescence properties based on the host–guest interactions.
Conductive and anti-freezing hydrogels constructed by pseudo-slide-ring networks
A pseudo-slide-ring network is introduced to enhance the hydrogel's mechanical performance, providing anti-freezing property and ionic conductivity.
Quickstart guide to model structures and interactions of artificial molecular muscles with efficient computational methods
Artificial molecular muscles are of interest in the nanosciences but their theoretical treatment is demanding. We present a standardized protocol on how to obtain reliable structures and free energies applying GFN quantum chemistry methods.
Structure and hydration of polyvinylpyrrolidone–hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide–PVP used in tooth whitening involves a chain of hydrogen bonded H2O2 molecules that can be selectively substituted by water molecules.
Molecular recognition and photoprotection of riboflavin in water by a biomimetic host
A water-soluble tetralactam macrocycle is synthesized and characterized. This macrocycle is able to strongly bind riboflavin (Ka >107 M−1) in water and provides strong photoprotection of riboflavin upon UV irradiation.
Host–guest complexation modulated aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly for monodisperse hierarchical nanoflowers
This work presents the facile synthesis of monodisperse hierarchical nanoflowers by aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), modulated by host–guest interaction.
Supramolecular capture of highly polar amidosquaraine dye in water with nanomolar affinity and large turn-on fluorescence
A high-affinity supramolecular dye-capture system with “turn on” visible fluorescence is used to create a new assay for phospholipase-mediated liposome leakage.
Photoresponsive macrocycles for selective binding and release of sulfate
This work reports the synthesis of four photoresponsive macrocycles and their selective binding and release of SO42−via light irradiation.
Metal-dependent selective formation of calixarene assemblies based on dynamic covalent chemistry
Two imine-based calixarene assemblies were selectively formed by changing the conformation of the precursor by Na+ binding; the flattened and spread cone conformations gave a macrocyclic trimer and a capsular-shaped dimeric cage, respectively.
Threading of three rings on two stations: a convergent approach to rotaxane
A novel approach to efficient and selective synthesis of rotaxane with two stations was proposed to demonstrate the superiority of H-bonded azo-macrocycles in forging higher order rotaxanes.
Adhesion behaviour of bulk supramolecular polymers via pillararene-based molecular recognition
Pillararene–acid-based supramolecular adhesives with tough adhesion performances on different substrates were obtained.
Bio-inspired AIE pillararene probe with multiple binding sites to discriminate alkanediamines
A pillararene functionalized with multiple binding sites can detect 1,8-diaminooctane, 1,10-diaminodecane, and 1,12-diaminododecane selectively and sensitively by using the AIE mechanism and the induced-fit mechanism.
Chiral recognition coupled with chemometrics using boronate ensembles containing D–π–A cyanostilbenes
Chemometrics-coupled chiral recognition was conducted with boronate ensembles containing D–π–A cyanostilbenes to determine and predict enantiomer excess for guest amines.
Dendronized polydiacetylenes via photo-polymerization of supramolecular assemblies showing thermally tunable chirality
Dendronized polydiacetylenes showing thermoresponsiveness were fabricated via photopolymerization of assembled ribbons from amphiphilic dendronized diacetylene in aqueous solutions, which simultaneously showed thermally switchable chiralities.
Multichannel dual protein sensing using amphiphilic supramolecular assemblies
A supramolecular dual protein sensing approach embedded with protein–ligand binding features and enzyme-cleavable moiety activating multichannel fluorescence signals via three different mechanisms.
Structurally screening calixarenes as peptide transport activators
We studied the influence of calixarene structure on transport efficiency of peptides, and provide meaningful information for transport systems.
Direct enhancement of intercomponent interactions in polyrotaxane and its pronounced effects on glass state properties
Intercomponent interactions in polyrotaxane glass influenced the mobility of the threading polymer confined in the glassy host framework, resulting in markedly different mechanical properties.
Steric control of sorting regimes in self-assembled cages
Self-sorting regimes are controlled by adjusting steric interactions in self-assembled coordination cages and equilibration followed by HPLC. Statistical or biased distributions can be obtained, including isolation of a single heteroleptic species.
Macrocyclic complexes based on [N⋯I⋯N]+ halogen bonds
Macrocyclic iodine(I) complexes with 5–10 Å cavity act as host molecules and encapsulate hexafluorophosphate anions in the gas phase confirmed by ion-mobility spectrometry and DFT calculations.
Polypseudorotaxanes constructed from pillararenes and polyamides by interfacial polymerization
Polypseudorotaxanes constructed from pillararene rings and polyamide chains were successfully synthesized by interfacial polymerization of polyamide in the presence of pillararene.
Visualization of lipophagy using a supramolecular FRET pair
Host–guest interactions between rationally designed fluorescent probes enable the visualization of lipophagy in live cells.
Charge neutral halogen bonding tetradentate-iodotriazole macrocycles capable of anion recognition and sensing in highly competitive aqueous media
Neutral tetradentate halogen bonding macrocycles bind a range of halide and dicarboxylate anion species in up to 40% water by volume containing aqueous-organic solvent media
[2.2]Paracyclophane-bridged platinum(II) complexes for silver(I) recognition with emission enhancement
A [2.2]paracyclophane-bridged bimetallic alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridyl complex displays severe emission quenching due to the presence of intramolecular π–π interactions.
Self-sorting behavior in supramolecular fullerene polymerization directed by host–guest complexation between calixarene and C60
Herein, we describe self-sorting supramolecular polymerization that uses chiral calixarene hosts and a dumbbell-shaped fullerene guest.
Stable pseudorotaxanes with strong positive binding cooperativity based on shape-persistent aromatic oligoamide macrocycles
Six-residue aromatic oligoamide macrocycles bind bipyridinium guest G to form stable, compact pseudorotaxanes with strong positive cooperativity.
Turn on chemiluminescence-based probes for monitoring tyrosinase activity in conjunction with biological thiols
We report a chemiluminescent probe that permits the paired detection of tyrosinase (Tyr) and biological thiols. The Tyr-formed benzoquinone intermediate reacts with GSH and produces an enhanced chemiluminescence response.
Hierarchical protein self-assembly into dynamically controlled 2D nanoarrays via host–guest chemistry
A dynamically reversible two-dimensional (2D) protein assembly system was designed based on host–guest interactions.
Layered supramolecular network of cyclodextrin triplets with azobenzene-grafting polyoxometalate for dye degradation and partner-enhancement
A layered network supramolecular assembly is constructed by a tri-β-cyclodextrin-armed host and di-azobenzene-decorated polyoxometalate guest for degradation of selective dyes and partner-joined acceleration in water and dichloromethane in air.
Room-temperature phosphorescence of a water-soluble supramolecular organic framework
A porous water-soluble supramolecular organic framework efficiently exhibiting phosphorescence was developed both in an aqueous phase and in film state at room-temperature.
Orientational self-sorting: formation of structurally defined Pd4L8 and Pd6L12 cages from low-symmetry dipyridyl ligands
Structurally defined Pd4L8 and Pd6L12 coordination cages are obtained from low-symmetry dipyridyl ligands.
Biodegradable supramolecular micelles via host–guest interaction of cyclodextrin-terminated polypeptides and adamantane-terminated polycaprolactones
Supramolecular polymer micelles are formed by host–guest interaction of cyclodextrin- and adamantane-terminated polypeptides and polycaprolactones. Enzyme degradation of the micelles leads to a controlled release of payload.
Recognition of hydrophilic molecules in deep cavitand hosts with water-mediated hydrogen bonds
A new supramolecular system was constructed based on water-mediated hydrogen bonding between a benzimidazole functionalized host, water and guest. Intriguingly, these hosts can recognize small hydrophilic guests in water through the synergistic action of water-mediated hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects.
Pillararene-based supramolecular photosensitizer for enhanced hypoxic-tumor therapeutic effectiveness
A galactose-targeting supramolecular photosensitizer system DOX@GP5⊃NBSPD was constructed based on a host–guest inclusion complex, which could achieve the enhanced hypoxic-tumor therapeutic effectiveness by chemo-photodynamic combination.
Synergistic covalent-and-supramolecular polymers connected by pseudorotaxane moieties
Synergistic covalent-and-supramolecular polymers connected by pseudorotaxane moieties are designed and synthesized, whose unique topological structures lead to materials with mechanically adaptive properties.
Pyrrole-bridged quinones: π-electronic systems that modulate electronic structures by tautomerism and deprotonation
A new series of π-extended quinone derivatives containing a pyrrole bridge exhibited NH/OH-type tautomerization and anion binding along with deprotonation that induced near-infrared absorption and ion-pairing assemblies.
Pillararene-enriched linear conjugated polymer materials with thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole linkages for photocatalysis
A conjugated polymer material integrated with pillararenes and codoped with heteroatoms was constructed for band-structure engineering and photocatalytic dye degradation.
Measuring anion transport selectivity: a cautionary tale
pH-dependent liposomal assays are often used to determine anion selectivity in transmembrane anion transport experiments. In this communication, we discuss the validity and limitations of these assays, and provide guidelines for their use to avoid misleading results.
About this collection
Our vision is that this web collection will provide a showcase of current achievements while providing a springboard for future success in the field of host-guest chemistry. This collection, Guest Edited by Feihe Huang (Zhejiang University), Jonathan L. Sessler (The University of Texas at Austin), and Tomoki Ogoshi (Kyoto University), will cover not only host-guest complexes based on crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils, calixpyrroles, pillararenes, and other macrocyclic hosts, but also more complex supramolecular systems such as molecular switches, molecular machines, supramolecular polymers, supramolecular macromolecules and gels, macrocyclic amphiphiles, supra-amphiphiles, supra-monomers, supramolecular radicals, nonporous adaptive crystals, and other supramolecular materials based on host-guest chemistry. The collection will provide a spectrum of contributions that run the gamut from fundamental science all the way to real world applications involving areas as diverse as gene/drug delivery, smart/adaptive materials, devices, adsorption phenomena, separations, supramolecular chemotherapy, supramolecular cancer nanotheranostics, supramolecular analytical chemistry, information storage, coding and anti-counterfeitting, as well as supramolecular medicinal chemistry, to name a few of the many opportunities that are currently being perused. This collection intends to set a standard of excellence that will inspire current practitioners while attracting new researchers into the field.