Liposome-based nanocapsules for the controlled release of dietary curcumin: PDDA and silica nanoparticle-coated DMPC liposomes enhance the fluorescence efficiency and anticancer activity of curcumin†
Nanosystems with various compositions and biological properties are being extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. Many nanotechnology methods use novel nanocarriers, such as liposomes, in therapeutically targeted drug delivery systems. However, liposome matrices suffer from several limitations, including drug leakage and instability. Therefore, the surface modification of liposomes by coating them or adding polymers has advanced their application in drug delivery. Hence, the prevention of drug release from the liposome bilayers was the main focus of this work. For this purpose, liposomes were synthesized according to a thin film hydration method by applying various surface modifications. Three different nanocapsules, N1, N2, and N3, were prepared using 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), poly(diallyldimethylammonium)chloride (PDAA) polymer, and silica nanoparticles. PDDA and silica nanoparticles were coated on the surface of liposomes using a layer-by-layer assembly method, completely encapsulating curcumin into the core of the liposome. Fluorescence spectroscopy, TGA, DLS, XRD, SEM, and zeta potential methods were used to characterize the prepared nanocapsules. Interestingly, the fluorescence of curcumin showed a blue shift and the fluorescence efficiency was extraordinarily enhanced ∼25-, ∼54-, and ∼62-fold in the N1, N2, and N3 nanocapsules, respectively. Similarly, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and the anticancer activity of dietary curcumin were investigated for the different types of DMPC nanocapsules. The drug efficiencies of the liposomes were established according to the release of curcumin from the liposomes. The results showed that the release of curcumin from the nanocapsules decreased as the number of layers at the surface of the liposomes increased. The release of curcumin follows the Higuchi model; thus, a slow rate of diffusion is observed when a number of layers is added. The better encapsulation and higher anti-cancer activity of curcumin were also observed when more layers were added, which is due to electrostatic interactions inhibiting curcumin from being released.