Metal halide perovskite layers studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy†
We describe the investigation of metal halide perovskite layers, particularly CH3NH3PbI3 used in photovoltaic applications, by soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Relevant reference spectra were used to fit the experimental data using singular value decomposition. The distribution of key elements Pb, I, and O was determined throughout the layer stack of two samples prepared by wet process. One sample was chosen to undergo electrical biasing. Spectral data shows the ability of STXM to provide relevant chemical information for these samples. We found the results to be in good agreement with the sample history, both regarding the deposition sequence and the degradation of the perovskite material.