Engineered bioresponsive nanotherapeutics: recent advances in the treatment of atherosclerosis and ischemic-related disease
Biological stimuli that are present during the pathogenesis of disease have gained considerable interest as a critical element for the design of smart drug delivery systems. Recently, the utilization of biological stimuli-responsive (bioresponsive) nanotheranostic agents to treat atherosclerosis and ischemic-related diseases has demonstrated significant outcomes in preclinical studies. Those diseases share similar hallmarks, including high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), low pH, and high enzyme activity. Interestingly, other relevant biological stimuli such as shear stress, cholesterol, and glutathione have recently been explored as internal stimuli to trigger drug release and some particular actions. In addition, a number of strategies can be proposed to enhance their targeting efficiency, diagnostic properties, and efficacy rate. This review discusses recent advancements in the preclinical studies of bioresponsive nanotherapeutics as diagnostic and therapeutic agents against atherosclerosis and ischemic-related diseases as well as some potential strategies to overcome the current limitations.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles