Zero-to-one (or more) nanoarchitectonics: how to produce functional materials from zero-dimensional single-element unit, fullerene
In this review article, the potentials of the nanoarchitectonic approach are demonstrated from the viewpoint of the high capability of structure formation from simple fullerene units. The formation of materials with huge morphological variety from simple unit components, fullerenes (C60 and C70), only through conventional procedures is exemplified. Although fullerenes are zero-dimensional units made only from a single element component, carbon, nanoarchitectonic processes from fullerene molecules provide one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional motifs, and a further extension to complicated morphologies and hierarchical structures. The novel applications of nanoarchitected fullerene materials are also described by showing their usages in micro-scale material recognition and fate regulation of living cells. It is said that true innovation relies on the idea to create one from zero. This review article demonstrates this true innovation capability of nanoarchitectonics in material advances.