Carbon based materials: a review of adsorbents for inorganic and organic compounds
This review presents the adsorptive removal process of hazardous materials onto carbon-based materials comprising activated carbon, graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, biochar and carbon aerogels. Particular emphasis is placed on the fabrication of various carbon-based substances and their characteristics. As a ubiquitous phenomenon, dangerous compounds originating from industrial wastewater lead to damage to the environment and water resources. Therefore, among conventional technologies, adsorption is highly effective and the most extensively used method owing to its simplicity of performance and fairly low cost of application for the removal of hazardous pollutants. This paper comprehensively reviews a multitude of aspects regarding the chemical and physical nature of various carbon materials and their adsorption ability by increasing their surface area or their possible modification. Based on the properties of nano-carbon materials, adsorptive elimination mechanisms for antibiotics, dyes, heavy metals, pesticides, oils, phenolic and volatile organic compounds and gas pollutants are highlighted. The advantageous characteristics of nano-carbon materials assigned to their unique adsorptive removal of common hazardous substances will be pointed out.