The miscibility and solubility of uric acid and vitamin C in the solution phase and their structural alignment in the solid–liquid interface†
The crystallization of uric acid (UA) in humans is correlated with unpropitious medical predicaments, including gout and kidney stone germination. Its comparatively low solubility in physiological solutions is a significant contributory factor to UA biomineralization. The inhibition of UA aggregation is investigated as a reasonable approach for reducing kidney and gout-related problems. Therefore, we examine the role of vitamin C (Vit-C), a water-soluble vitamin, in the aggregation of UA, and its potency in solubilizing UA has been confirmed experimentally. We notice that Vit-C encapsulates the aggregated UA. Moreover, it can dismantle the assemblies of UA. We have proffered comprehensive molecular mechanisms of the interplay between the aggregated UA and Vit-C. Vit-C molecules are interspersed in solution due to its non-aggregating nature. We perceive that, through hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions, Vit-C molecules interact with UA molecules. The determination of the Flory–Huggins interaction parameters suggests that the presence of Vit-C enhances the solubility of UA aggregates. In addition, UA molecules are conformed on a monolayer graphene sheet, where they are assembled to create a 2D self-assembly. Vit-C, however, encapsulates and disseminates itself within the aggregated UA molecules on the surface. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of Vit-C on UA aggregation can provide relevant insights into drug design against chronic diseases.