Dissecting the activation of insulin degrading enzyme by inositol pyrophosphates and their bisphosphonate analogs†
Inositol poly- and pyrophosphates (InsPs and PP-InsPs) are densely phosphorylated eukaryotic messengers, which are involved in numerous cellular processes. To elucidate their signaling functions at the molecular level, non-hydrolyzable bisphosphonate analogs of inositol pyrophosphates, PCP-InsPs, have been instrumental. Here, an efficient synthetic strategy to obtain these analogs in unprecedented quantities is described – relying on the use of combined phosphate ester-phosphoramidite reagents. The PCP-analogs, alongside their natural counterparts, were applied to investigate their regulatory effect on insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), using a range of biochemical, biophysical and computational methods. A unique interplay between IDE, its substrates and the PP-InsPs was uncovered, in which the PP-InsPs differentially modulated the activity of the enzyme towards short peptide substrates. Aided by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, a flexible binding mode for the InsPs/PP-InsPs was identified at the anion binding site of IDE. Targeting IDE for therapeutic purposes should thus take regulation by endogenous PP-InsP metabolites into account.
- This article is part of the themed collections: 2021 ChemSci Pick of the Week Collection and 2021 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection