High efficiency deep red to yellow photochemical upconversion under solar irradiance†
The performance of a perylene monoimide annihilator is evaluated in a photochemical upconversion composition. It is found to perform up to five times better than the commonly employed rubrene annihilator at low excitation intensity, but suffers from a low annihilation singlet yield which hinders its performance under strong excitation. Upconversion action spectroscopy under broadband bias reveals that under one sun illumination, an upconversion composition employing the perylene monoimide utilizes more than 12% of the generated triplet states to generate emissive, excited singlet states. In a suitable medium, this composition could enhance the energy conversion efficiency of high band gap solar cells.