Glutamate detection at the cellular level by means of polymer/enzyme multilayer modified carbon nanoelectrodes†
Carbon nanoelectrodes in the sub-micron range were modified with an enzyme cascade immobilized in a spatially separated polymer double layer system for the detection of glutamate at the cellular level. The enzyme cascade consists of glutamate oxidase (GlutOx) that was immobilized in a hydrophilic redox silent polymer on top of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/redox polymer layer. In the presence of O2, glutamate was oxidized under concomitant reduction of O2 to H2O2 at GlutOx. H2O2 is further reduced to water by means of HRP and electrons are shuttled via the redox polymer matrix that wires the HRP to the electrode surface, hence delivering a current response proportional to the glutamate concentration. The nanometer-sized sensors could be successfully used to measure glutamate release from primary mouse astrocytes in 10 mM HEPES buffer.