De novo fabrication of multi-heteroatoms-doped carbonaceous materials via an in situ doping strategy
Finding a succinct strategy by which to fabricate multi-heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbonaceous materials is a long-term challenge and highly desired research topic. Key to success is the rational design of easily obtained and functionalized precusors. Herein, de novo fabrication of multi-heteroatom-doped carbonaceous materials, including boron, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and sulfur, was achieved via a one-step in situ doping procedure using task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) as precursors. Our strategy hinges on the adoption of particularly designed TSILs with structures functionalized by (1) boron source-containing anions, (2) imidazolium functionalities as carbon and nitrogen source, (3) nitrile groups capable of trimerization during the heating process, and (4) bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide and related anions performing as the source for heteroatoms (i.e., fluorine, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen) and porogen. The unique structures of the as-prepared TSILs endow them as qualified precursors for the production of multi-heteroatom-doped carbonaceous materials through simple thermal treatment, with surface areas up to 1021 m2 g-1. The introduction of multiple heteroatoms renders the carbonaceous materials with efficient adsorption performance for the capture of hazardous anionic pollutants, dyes, and neutral organic molecules. This finding expands the versatility of TSILs with multi functionalized architectures, delivering nanoporous materials with wide applications.