Microfluidic systems for rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) at the single-cell level
Infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens are impending threats to global health. Since delays in identifying drug resistance would significantly increase mortality, fast and accurate antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) are critical for addressing the antibiotic resistance issue. However, the conventional methods for ASTs are always labor-intensive, imprecise, complex and slow (taking 2–3 days). To address these issues, some advanced microfluidic systems have been designed for rapid phenotypic and genotypic analysis of antibiotic resistance. This review highlights the recent development of microfluidics-based ASTs at the single-cell or single-molecule level for guiding antibiotic treatment decisions and predicting therapeutic outcomes.