Design, synthesis and structure of a frustrated benzoxaborole and its applications in the complexation of amines, amino acids, and protein modification†
This study describes the design and synthesis of arylboronic acid 2, the first example of a permanently open “frustrated” benzoxaborole, along with an exploration of its application in bioconjugation. An efficient and high yielding seven-step synthesis was optimized. NMR experiments confirmed that compound 2 exists in the open ortho-hydroxyalkyl arylboronic acid structure 2-I, a form that is effectively prevented to undergo a dehydrative cyclization as a result of unfavorable geometry. Compound 2-I conjugates effectively with amines to form stable hemiaminal ether structures, including a highly effective reaction with lysozyme. Complexation with cysteine induces an open structure containing a free hydroxymethyl arm, with the amino and thiol groups reacting preferentially with the formyl group to form a N,S-acetal.