Advanced nanomaterials for hypoxia tumor therapy: challenges and solutions
In recent years, nanomaterials and nanotechnology have emerged as vital factors in the medical field with a unique contribution to cancer medicine. Given the increasing number of cancer patients, it is necessarily required to develop innovative strategies and therapeutic modalities to tackle hypoxia, which forms a hallmark and great barrier in treating solid tumors. The present review details the challenges in nanotechnology-based hypoxia, targeting the strategies and solutions for better therapeutic performances. The interaction between hypoxia and tumor is firstly introduced. Then, we review the recently developed engineered nanomaterials towards multimodal hypoxia tumor therapies, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and sonodynamic treatment. In the next part, we summarize the nanotechnology-based strategies for overcoming hypoxia problems. Finally, current challenges and future directions are proposed for successfully overcoming the hypoxia tumor problems.