A Biocatalytic Green Alternative to Existing Hazardous Reaction Medium: Synthesis of Chalcone and Flavone Derivatives via Claisen-Schmidt Reaction at Room Temperature
With increasing amount of waste materials around the globe, the conversion of wastes or secondary by‐products to value‐added products for various applications has gained lot of interest. Herein, two novel agro‐food wastes of Musa sp. ‘Malbhog’ peel ash (MMPA) and Musa Champa Hort. ex Hook. F. peel ash (MCPA) used as catalysts to promote an inexpensive, efficient and eco-friendly carbon-carbon bond forming crossed aldol reaction at room temperature in solvent free conditions. Further, these resulted products were subjected to reacts with these promoters in oxygen atmosphere led to formation of noval flavone derivatives. Moreover, the used catalysts were properly characterized by using different sophisticated analytical techniques like FT-IR, XRD, BET, Raman, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS and TGA along with element detection by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatographic methods. These two approaches are metal free as well as devoid of any extra additives, co-catalyst, harsh conditions, column chromatography for purification with higher yield production within short span of time. Catalytic abilities of the promoter were also examined to synthesize important bioactive molecules like, butein and apigenin at room temperature. With gram scale synthesis of chalcone derivatives, the used catalysts (MMPA and MCPA) were further reused for five cycles without loss of catalytic activity.