Intravenously administered d-mannitol-coated maghemite nanoparticles cause elemental anomalies in selected rat organs†
In this study novel D-mannitol coated maghemite nanoparticles (MIONPs) are presented in terms of their influence on elemental homeostasis of living organisms and for this purpose highly sensitive total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used. Because of the biological indifference of D-mannitol and presumed lower toxicity of maghemite, compared to the most commonly used magnetite in nanomedicine, such nanoparticles seem to be promising candidates for biomedical applications. The examined dose of MIONPs was comparable with one of the lowest doses used in medical diagnostics. However, it should be emphasized that the amount of iron injected in this form is still significant compared to its total content in organs, especially in kidneys or the heart, and may easily disrupt their elemental homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the elemental changes occurring in selected rat organs after injecting a low dose of MIONPs. The results were compared with those obtained for previously examined PEG-coated nanoparticles with magnetite cores. In the light of our findings the elemental changes observed after exposure to MIONPs were less extensive than those following PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticle administration.