A review of the treatment of low–medium strength domestic wastewater using aerobic granulation technology†
In recent times, the treatment of actual low-medium strength domestic wastewater using aerobic granulation has been proposed as a promising alternative to replace the conventional activated sludge system. Numerous studies have been successfully carried out to validate the feasibility of aerobic granulation for the treatment of various high strength wastewater types. However, relatively little research has been reported on aerobic granulation treating actual low-medium strength domestic wastewater, due to its nature of low and complex substrate availability that does not favor the growth of aerobic granules. In this review, past experiences in treating the actual low-medium strength domestic wastewater at lab-, pilot- and full-scale levels, using aerobic granulation technology have been gathered and critically discussed, including studies using continuous flow reactors. The properties and treatment ability of aerobic granules as well as the challenges faced by previous researchers are also documented. Lastly, strategies to optimise and enhance aerobic granulation in actual low-medium strength domestic wastewater treatment are proposed, so that they can serve as a guideline for future research and real applications.