Conjugated porous polymers: incredibly versatile materials with far-reaching applications†
Conjugated porous polymers (CPPs) are a class of amorphous polymer networks that are, in their design, fully cross-linked and fully π-conjugated. The cross-linked nature of CPPs means that they have permanent intrinsic porosity (on the nanometer scale), which, in combination with the fully π-conjugated framework, makes these materials unique among the wider class of porous polymeric materials. In recent years, the need for new and efficient functional materials has driven the development of CPPs as versatile platforms for applications including (photo)catalysis, light harvesting, gas separation and storage, chemosensing, environmental remediation and energy storage. The efficiency of these materials towards these described applications is heavily influenced by the choice of molecular building blocks and synthetic conditions, allowing for facile tailoring and optimisation of the structure and properties. The aim of this review is to highlight select works on CPPs, including basic structural design principles, various synthetic protocols and topical applications of these versatile materials.