Biohybrid robotics with living cell actuation
As simulators of organisms in Nature, soft robots have been developed over the past few decades. In particular, biohybrid robots constructed by integrating living cells with soft materials demonstrate the unique advantage of simulating the construction and functions of human tissues or organs, thus attracting extensive attention and research interest. Here, we present up-to-date studies concerning biohybrid robots with various biological actuators such as contractile cells and microorganisms. After presenting the basic components including biological components and synthetic materials, the controlling methods and locomotion modalities of biohybrid robots are clarified and summarized. We then focus on the applications, especially the biomedical applications, of the biohybrid robots including drug delivery, bioimaging, and tissue engineering. The challenges and prospects for the future development of biohybrid robots are also presented.