Ultrafast room-temperature synthesis of hierarchically porous metal–organic frameworks with high space–time yields†
We developed a facile and general method to synthesize various HP-MOFs such as HKUST-1, ZIF-8, ZIF-61, and ZIF-90 within 1 min at room temperature and ambient pressure, using organic amines as protonation-templating agents. The morphology and porosity of hierarchically porous HKUST-1 can be readily tuned by varying the type of organic amines or the synthesis time. The space–time yield reached as high as 4.05 × 104 kg m−3 d−1, at least 1 order of magnitude higher than previously reported values. In addition, the mechanism for rapid HP-MOF synthesis was elucidated for the first time by using a simulation technique. This strategy provides a new method for the facile, quick and large-scale synthesis of various HP-MOFs for a wide range of applications.