High-resolution DNA size enrichment using a magnetic nano-platform and application in non-invasive prenatal testing†
Precise DNA sizing can boost sequencing efficiency, reduce cost, improve data quality, and even allow sequencing of low-input samples, while current pervasive DNA sizing approaches are incapable of differentiating DNA fragments under 200 bp with high resolution (<20 bp). In non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), the size distribution of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma (main peak at 143 bp) is significantly different from that of maternal cell-free DNA (main peak at 166 bp). The current pervasive workflow of NIPT and DNA sizing is unable to take advantage of this 20 bp difference, resulting in sample rejection, test inaccuracy, and restricted clinical utility. Here we report a simple, automatable, high-resolution DNA size enrichment workflow, named MiniEnrich, on a magnetic nano-platform to exploit this 20 bp size difference and to enrich fetal DNA fragments from maternal blood. Two types of magnetic nanoparticles were developed, with one able to filter high-molecular-weight DNA with high resolution and the other able to recover the remaining DNA fragments under the size threshold of interest with >95% yield. Using this method, the average fetal fraction was increased from 13% to 20% after the enrichment, as measured by plasma DNA sequencing. This approach provides a new tool for high-resolution DNA size enrichment under 200 bp, which may improve NIPT accuracy by rescuing rejected non-reportable clinical samples, and enable NIPT earlier in pregnancy. It also has the potential to improve non-invasive screening for fetal monogenic disorders, differentiate tumor-related DNA in liquid biopsy and find more applications in autoimmune disease diagnosis.