Biomass-derived porous carbon materials with different dimensions for supercapacitor electrodes: a review
The exploration of renewable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly electrode materials with high adsorption, fast ion/electron transport, and tunable surface chemistry is urgently needed for the development of next-generation biocompatible energy-storage devices. In recent years, biomass-derived carbon electrode materials for energy storage have attracted significant attention because of their widespread availability, renewable nature, and low cost. More importantly, their inherent uniform and precise biological structures can be utilized as templates for fabricating electrode materials with controlled and well-defined geometries. Meanwhile, the basic elements of biomass are carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The special naturally ordered hierarchical structures as well as abundant surface properties of biomass-derived carbon materials are compatible with electrochemical reaction processes such as ion transfer and diffusion. To date, a series of novel porous carbon materials with different dimensions have been prepared by various methods using biomass as the raw material, which is an important field in the fabrication of supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we summarized recently reported biomass-derived carbon materials with one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional structures and their applications as carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives of the carbon-based electrode materials with respect to the supercapacitor's performance were closely highlighted.
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