Enhanced carbon dioxide removal from coupled direct air capture–bioenergy systems†
Engineered carbon dioxide (CO2) removal technologies—such as direct air capture (DAC) and bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS)—require significant advancements to reduce costs and increase scale without environmental or social harm. Up until this point, advancements in BECCS and DAC technologies have progressed independently of each other, despite the ability of BECCS to provide carbon-negative heat and power to DAC processes. Here, we demonstrate synergistic integration of BECCS and DAC systems decreases costs, increases carbon removal, and extends the impact of scarce biomass resources. We estimate biomass integrated DAC systems can increase net CO2 removal by 109–119% at lower costs than standalone reference systems. If hybrid BECCS–DAC systems were deployed across the US using biomass resources co-located with geologic storage, 1.5 Gt of CO2 could be sequestered annually without long-distance biomass or CO2 transport in 2030. Innovation in the design and implementation of coupled BECCS–DAC systems would have a profound impact on CO2 removal, if realized.