Influence of stomach mucosa tissue on the efficacy of intragastric antibacterial PDT
In the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT), optimization of the in vivo therapeutic efficacy needs a comprehensive study of the photo-killing action spectrum that depends on both the photosensitizer (PS) absorption and the tissue optical properties. This is especially true in the case of gastric infections by Helicobacter pylori: PS absorption has been largely investigated in vitro, while the contribution of tissue optical properties and illumination geometry has been poorly studied, despite being parameters that reflect the specific in vivo conditions. To investigate their influence, we focussed on the case of a point-like light source positioned in the antrum. This models a therapeutic device developed by our team which consists of a LED-based ingestible pill. By a simple 3D illumination model, our approach mediates light–tissue interaction over the illuminated stomach wall surface, then calculates its average transmittance T by means of a 1D model representative of the mean gastric mucosa structure. Finally, by merging T(λ) with the photosensitizers’ absorption we obtained the in vivo action spectrum. This shows two peaks at about 500 and 630 nm, indicating a noticeable influence of the tissue with respect to in vitro studies, where the action spectrum reflects PS absorption only. Our approach defines one average action spectrum for this specific therapeutic context, which reflects the need to choose one emission spectrum for the light source used. The proposed methodology could be applied to any other illumination geometry of cave organs, provided appropriate model modifications for the light source and tissue characteristics are made.