A tailored polymeric cationic tag–anionic Pd(ii) complex as a catalyst for the low-leaching Heck–Mizoroki coupling in flow and in biomass-derived GVL†
The [PdCl4]2− palladium complex has been immobilized on a polystyrene-type resin loaded with pincer-type imidazolium ionic tag binding sites. The catalytic system (Pd(II)-POLI-TAG) has proved to be highly active in the definition of an efficient protocol for the Heck–Mizoroki coupling reaction under batch and flow conditions. Importantly, it is shown to be highly robust in combination with a safe non-toxic reaction medium, i.e. biomass-derived GVL, since it could be reused for multiple runs without significantly losing its activity.