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Issue 6, 2019
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A graphite intercalation compound associated with liquid Na–K towards ultra-stable and high-capacity alkali metal anodes

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Abstract

Alkali metal anodes (Li, Na, K) are highly promising for enabling high-energy-density rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical capacities and low redox potentials. Although extensive studies have been performed on Li-metal, dendrite growth and serious interface issues are still fundamental challenges for practical alkali metal batteries (AMBs). Here, we report an in situ-formed graphite intercalation compound (GIC) framework that enables Na–K liquid alloy to be used in ultra-stable and high-capacity anodes, attributed to the synergy of fast electron and mass transport of the GIC networks associated with the self-healing behavior of the Na–K alloy. The Na–K composite electrode is highly stable; it sustains repeated stripping/deposition over 5000 hours at 20 mA cm−2 and achieves stable electrodeposition even at 80 mA cm−2 and 16 mA h cm−2. When coupled with various cathodes, versatile AMBs are realized with long cycling and high operating voltages. This framework electrode design presents new insight into developing dendrite-free alkali metal anodes.

Graphical abstract: A graphite intercalation compound associated with liquid Na–K towards ultra-stable and high-capacity alkali metal anodes

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Article information


Submitted
07 Feb 2019
Accepted
26 Apr 2019
First published
26 Apr 2019

Energy Environ. Sci., 2019,12, 1989-1998
Article type
Paper

A graphite intercalation compound associated with liquid Na–K towards ultra-stable and high-capacity alkali metal anodes

L. Zhang, S. Peng, Y. Ding, X. Guo, Y. Qian, H. Celio, G. He and G. Yu, Energy Environ. Sci., 2019, 12, 1989
DOI: 10.1039/C9EE00437H

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