Nonribosomal antibacterial peptides that target multidrug-resistant bacteria
Covering: 2000 to 2018, particularly from 2010 to early 2018
The increase in the incidence of antibiotic resistant infections is threatening to overwhelm healthcare practices worldwide. Most antibiotics in clinical use are becoming ineffective, so therefore it is imperative to develop new antibiotics and novel therapeutic strategies. Traditionally, the chemical and mechanistic diversity of nonribosomal antibacterial peptides (NRAPs) as lead compounds have meant that their structures are ideal for antibiotic discovery. Here, we summarize the state of our current knowledge about the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, which can be used to guide the development of new antibiotics. Furthermore, we provide an overview of NRAPs for treating multi-drug resistant bacteria, including innovative approaches for screening NRAPs from new sources and the underlying mechanisms of antibacterial activity. Finally, we discuss the design of NRAP scaffolds for precise medicine and combinatorial NRAP therapies with existing antibiotics to overcome resistance, which will help to control infections in the post-antibiotic era.