One-step nondestructive functionalization of graphene oxide paper with amines†
Direct functionalization of prefabricated free-standing graphene oxide paper (GOP) is the only approach suitable for systematic tuning of its mechanical, thermal and electronic characteristics. However, the traditional liquid-phase functionalization can compromise physical integrity of the paper-like material up to its total disintegration. In the present paper, we attempted to apply an alternative, solvent-free strategy for facile and nondestructive functionalization of GOP with 1-octadecylamine (ODA) and 1,12-diaminododecane (DAD) as representatives of aliphatic amines, and with 1-aminopyrene (AP) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) as examples of aromatic amines. The functionalization can be carried out under moderate heating at 150–180 °C for 2 h in vacuum, and proceeds through both amidation and epoxy ring opening reactions. Comparative characterization of pristine and amine-modified GOP samples was carried out by means of Fourier-transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. In addition, we compared stability in water, wettability, electrical conductivity and elastic (Young's) modulus of GOP samples before and after functionalization. The highest content of amine species was obtained in the case of GOP-ODA, followed by GOP-DAD, GOP-AP and GOP-DAN. The functionalization increased mechanical and thermal stability, as well as the electrical conductivity of GOP. The magnitude of each effect depends on the structure of amine employed, which allows for tuning a given GOP characteristic. Morphological characterization showed that, compared to pristine graphene oxide paper, amine-modified mats become relatively ordered layered structures, in which individual GO sheets are organized in a near-parallel fashion.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Celebrating recent chemical science in Mexico