Mixed-matrix materials using metal–organic polyhedra with enhanced compatibility for membrane gas separation†
Discrete metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) containing copper(II), palladium(II), and iron(II) nodes were synthesized as fillers for mixed-matrix materials (MMMs) with a polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) polymer phase and contrasted against an MMM containing a metal–organic framework, MOF-5. When a given MOP was soluble in the precursor solutions, the resulting MMMs were thin, flexible, and homogeneous based on microscopy and SEM imaging. Analogous MMM formation using either insoluble MOPs or the inherent insoluble MOF-5 showed a higher degree of phase separation and inhomogeneity. Even when a MOP was not fully soluble, a significant particle size decrease was observed in contrast to the MOF-5 materials wherein the crystallites remained largely intact. This is a consequence of solubilizing the MOP fillers into the polymer solvent. The crystallinity and thermal stabilities of the MMMs were compared to pure PVDF using powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, indicating that the incorporation of MOPs both decreased overall crystallinity as well as increased thermal stability. In addition, MMMs containing PdMOP and FeMOP showed improved gas permeabilities relative to pure PVDF for H2, N2, CH4, and CO2, with the 10 wt% FeMOP membrane more selective for CO2 over N2 and H2.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Molecular metal-containing soft materials