Recent progress in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biological and biomedical applications: from cells to clinics
The application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in biological and biomedical detection schemes is feasible due to its excellent molecular specificity and high sensitivity as well as the capability of SERS to be performed in complex biological compositions. SERS-based investigation of cells, which are the basic structure and functional unit of organisms, represents the starting point of this review. It is demonstrated that SERS provides a deep understanding of living cells as well as their microenvironment which is needed to assess the development of diseases. The clinical relevance of SERS is proved by its application for the detection of cancer cells and tumour margins under in vivo conditions and examples for theranostic approaches are discussed. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress within the last 3 years.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Probes for in vitro and in vivo fluorescence imaging and Surface and tip enhanced spectroscopies