One-step production of multiple emulsions: microfluidic, polymer-stabilized and particle-stabilized approaches
Multiple emulsions have great potential for application in food science as a means to reduce fat content or for controlled encapsulation and release of actives. However, neither production nor stability is straightforward. Typically, multiple emulsions are prepared via two emulsification steps and a variety of approaches have been deployed to give long-term stability. It is well known that multiple emulsions can be prepared in a single step by harnessing emulsion inversion, although the resulting emulsions are usually short lived. Recently, several contrasting methods have been demonstrated which give rise to stable multiple emulsions via one-step production processes. Here we review the current state of microfluidic, polymer-stabilized and particle-stabilized approaches; these rely on phase separation, the role of electrolyte and the trapping of solvent with particles respectively.