Synthesis, structure and reactivity of a terminal magnesium fluoride compound, [TpBut,Me]MgF: hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding and C–F bond formation†
The bulky tris(3-tert-butyl-5-pyrazolyl)hydroborato ligand, [TpBut,Me], has been employed to obtain the first structurally characterized example of a molecular magnesium compound that features a terminal fluoride ligand, namely [TpBut,Me]MgF, via the reaction of [TpBut,Me]MgMe with Me3SnF. The chloride, bromide and iodide complexes, [TpBut,Me]MgX (X = Cl, Br, I), can also be obtained by an analogous method using Me3SnX. The molecular structures of the complete series of halide derivatives, [TpBut,Me]MgX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) have been determined by X-ray diffraction. In each case, the Mg–X bond lengths are shorter than the sum of the covalent radii, thereby indicating that there is a significant ionic component to the bonding, in agreement with density functional theory calculations. The fluoride ligand of [TpBut,Me]MgF undergoes halide exchange with Me3SiX (X = Cl, Br, I) to afford [TpBut,Me]MgX and Me3SiF. The other halide derivatives [TpBut,Me]MgX undergo similar exchange reactions, but the thermodynamic driving forces are much smaller than those involving fluoride transfer, a manifestation of the often discussed silaphilicity of fluorine. In accord with the highly polarized Mg–F bond, the fluoride ligand of [TpBut,Me]MgF is capable of serving as a hydrogen bond and halogen bond acceptor, such that it forms adducts with indole and C6F5I. [TpBut,Me]MgF also reacts with Ph3CCl to afford Ph3CF, thereby demonstrating that [TpBut,Me]MgF may be used to form C–F bonds.