Blue-shifted emission and enhanced quantum efficiency via π-bridge elongation in carbazole–carborane dyads
Carbazole–carborane linear dyads and di(carbazole)–carborane V-shaped dyads with phenyleneethynylene-based bridges have been synthesized. The V-shaped dyads display the expected red-shifts in the location of their UV-Vis absorption maxima on bridge-lengthening, but show unusual blue-shifts in charge-transfer (CT) emission on the same π-system lengthening. These blue-shifts can be attributed to the 2n + 3 electron count within the carborane cluster in the excited state. The linear dyads luminesce via a combination of local excited (LE) and CT emission, with a red-shift in LE emission and a blue-shift in CT emission accompanying π-bridge elongation. A quantum efficiency as high as 86% in the solution state is achieved from the hybrid LE/CT emission. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations at the excited state of these compounds have clarified the photoluminescence blue-shift and suggested a typical cluster C–C bond elongation in the V-shaped dyads. Calculations on the elongated linear dyads have suggested that the electron density is localized at the phenyleneethynylene-containing bridge.
- This article is part of the themed collection: RACI100: Celebrating Australian Chemistry