Heteronuclear DNP of protons and deuterons with TEMPOL†
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments on samples with several types of magnetic nuclei sometimes exhibit “cross-talk” between the nuclei, such as different nuclei having DNP spectra with similar shapes and enhancements. In this work we demonstrate that while at 20 K the DNP spectra of 1H and 2H nuclei, in a sample composed of 50% v/v 1H2O/DMSO-d6 and containing 40 mM TEMPOL, are different and can be analyzed using the indirect cross effect (iCE) model, at 6 K the DNP spectra of both 1H and 2H nuclei become identical. In addition we experimentally demonstrate that there exists an efficient polarization exchange between the two nuclear pools at this temperature. Both of these results are hallmark predictions of the thermal mixing (TM) formalism. However, the origin of these observations cannot, in our case, be explained using the standard TM formalism, as in our sample the electron reservoir cannot be described by a single non-Zeeman spin temperature, which is a prerequisite of TM. This conclusion follows from the analysis of the electron electron double resonance (ELDOR) experiments on our sample and is similar to the previously published results. Consequently, another mechanism must be used in order to explain these “cross-talk” effects. The heteronuclear cross effect (hnCE) DNP mechanism, previously introduced based on the simulations of the spin evolution in small model systems, results in “cross-talk” effects between two types of nuclei that are similar to the experimental ones seen in this work. In particular we show that the hnCE mechanism exhibits polarization transfer between the nuclei and that there exists a clear relationship between the steady state polarizations of the two types of nuclei which may, in the future, be correlated with the phenomenon observed in the two types of bulk nuclear signals in samples during DNP experiments. It is suggested that the hnCE electrons are a possible source for the process that equalizes the bulk enhancements of the 1H and 2H nuclei and are responsible for the observed cross-talk effects.