Graphene oxide supported sodium stannate lithium ion battery anodes by the peroxide route: low temperature and no waste processing†
Since there has been a notable improvement in the performance of graphene-supported tin-based lithium ion battery anodes, they have become a viable alternative to state of the art graphite anodes. However, currently these anodes are produced by energy-demanding thermal processes and generate lithium chloride or other wastes. In this research, we demonstrate the formation of efficient and stable lithium ion battery anodes based on sodium stannate-coated reduced graphene oxide. Coating is performed at low temperatures and when a sodium peroxostannate precursor is used, the process can be carried out with zero waste discharge. Thermal treatment is required only for the solid material. The anode exhibited a charge capacity of 610 mA h g−1 after 140 cycles at 100 mA g−1. This is the first characterization of a sodium stannate-based anode for LIBs.