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Issue 33, 2015
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Raindrop impact on sand: a dynamic explanation of crater morphologies

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Abstract

As a droplet impacts upon a granular substrate, both the intruder and the target undergo deformation, during which the liquid may penetrate into the substrate. These three aspects together distinguish it from other impact phenomena in the literature. We perform high-speed, double-laser profilometry measurements and disentangle the dynamics into three aspects: the deformation of the substrate during the impact, the maximum spreading diameter of the droplet, and the penetration of the liquid into the substrate. By systematically varying the impact speed and the packing fraction of the substrate, (i) the substrate deformation indicates a critical packing fraction ϕ* ≈ 0.585; (ii) the maximum droplet spreading diameter is found to scale with a Weber number corrected by the substrate deformation; and (iii) a model of the liquid penetration is established and is used to explain the observed crater morphology transition.

Graphical abstract: Raindrop impact on sand: a dynamic explanation of crater morphologies

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Article information


Submitted
22 Apr 2015
Accepted
22 Jun 2015
First published
22 Jun 2015

Soft Matter, 2015,11, 6562-6568
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Raindrop impact on sand: a dynamic explanation of crater morphologies

S. Zhao, R. de Jong and D. van der Meer, Soft Matter, 2015, 11, 6562
DOI: 10.1039/C5SM00957J

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