Simultaneous determination of two flavonoids based on disulfide linked β-cyclodextrin dimer and Pd cluster functionalized graphene-modified electrode†
In the present work, ultrafine Pd clusters with a uniform size of ∼2.0 nm were monodispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a clean and green approach in the absence of additional reductants and surfactants. Disulfide linked β-cyclodextrin dimer (SS-β-CD) was non-covalently bonded to the surface of Pd@RGO. By combining the merits of Pd@RGO and the SS-β-CD, a highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed based on the SS-β-CD–Pd@RGO nanohybrids. Simultaneous electrochemical detection of baicalin and luteolin using a SS-β-CD–Pd@RGO nanohybrid-modified electrode is described for the first time. The SS-β-CD showed a higher supramolecular recognition capability than the native β-CD, which may be caused by the cooperative binding abilities of two adjacent CD units. Due to the synergistic effects from the Pd@RGO (e.g. good electrochemical properties and large surface area) and SS-β-CD (e.g. hydrophilic external surface, high supramolecular recognition, and good enrichment capability), the SS-β-CD–Pd@RGO modified electrode was found to have linear response ranges of 0.02–20.00 μM for baicalin and 0.01–10.00 μM for luteolin with relatively low detection limits of 0.0052 μM for baicalin and 0.0070 μM for luteolin. The results indicated that SS-β-CD–Pd@RGO nanohybrids are excellent sensing materials for the electrochemical determination of flavonoids. The proposed method could be successfully utilized to detect baicalin and luteolin in serum samples, and has a promising application in practice.