Amperometric sensing of urea using edge activated graphene nanoplatelets
Sensing of urea is the key component in the diagnosis of kidney related diseases and milk adulteration. Until now, the methods developed for urea sensing are not easy to perform, and very little attention has been paid to commercialization of such sensors. Herein, for the first time we report the low cost graphene nanoplatelets (GNPlts) based sensing platform for urea. Specifically edge functionalized GNPlts are used for keeping graphitic activity of graphene planes intact. We have successfully sensed variable ranges of urea concentrations from 0.1–0.8 mg ml−1. The amperometeric characterization showed a linear variation in current as a function of urea concentration. The developed platform has a rapid response time of 15 s with good sensitivity (33 μA (mg ml−1)−1) and specificity. This developed nanoplatform could be highly beneficial for the development of an ultrasensitive, disposable, routine use sensor for urea.